Abercrombies syndrome: Description, Causes and Risk Factors:
Abercrombies syndrome is infiltration of amyloid between cells and fibers of tissues and organs. Amyloid is a waxy protein containing starch and cellulose. This protein is insoluble, which means that it cannot be dissolved or broken down. When amyloid penetrates an organ, it will usually become deposited in the connective tissue cells and the capillary walls.
This condition occurs when amyloid permeates the fibers or cells of a tissue and causes degeneration. Abercrombies syndrome most commonly occurs in the spleen, kidneys and liver, though it can affect any tissue. As the tissue continues to degenerate, it will lose some or all of its normal functioning. Since the symptoms of Abercrombie disease are often vague, this condition might not be diagnosed until a significant amount of degeneration has occurred.
The disease is not an independent one but comes on in certain cachectic states due to chronic tuberculosis, syphilis, diseases of bone involving prolonged suppuration, chronic dysentery, etc.
As more unusual causes of Abercrombies syndrome, may be mentioned leukemia, Hodgkin's disease (malignant lymphoma), very rarely cancer or sarcoma. It is frequently associated with the kidney with chronic inflammation of that organ, but it is doubtful whether the latter is to be regarded as its cause, for, on the one hand, amyloid disease may lead to nephritis, and, on the other, both conditions may be the result of syphilis.
It is more difficult to determine the nature of the connection between the vice in the blood and the disease in the tissues. By some it is supposed that the, amyloid substance arises in the blood by modification of the albumen and is then infiltrated into the structures. But this view cannot be accepted, for various reasons. In the first place, the substance is eminently insoluble, and it is difficult to understand how it can be carried by the blood; besides this it does not displace the normal structures simply, but replaces them, these structures being converted into the amyloid substance. It is more consistent to suppose that the tissues are reduced in vitality by the altered condition of the blood, and that the albumen of the blood enters into combination with the protoplasm in such a way as to produce this peculiar substance. The process may perhaps be compared to the coagulation of the tissues, which, as we have seen, sometimes occurs when they undergo necrosis, the tissues entering apparently into a chemical union with the fibrinogen in the fluid exuded from the blood-vessels, so as to form fibrine or some substance allied to it. Amyloid matter has frequently been compared to fibrine, and researchers has suggested its affinity with de-alkalized fibrine. The existence of localized amyloid disease is strongly confirmatory of this view. In this condition abnormal structures enter into this peculiar chemical combination with the albumen of the blood, while normal structures do not. In this connection also, the fact that Abercrombie's syndrome affects the connective structures of the body is not to be forgotten. It is as if the chemical basis of these structures had a special relation to the amyloid substance. Abercrombie's syndrome is therefore essentially a degeneration although, in order to the formation of the amyloid substance, it is necessary to have, added to the tissue, material from without, and this adds greatly to the bulk and weight of the structures.
Primary degeneration of the conjunctiva of amyloid nature is a rare but well established condition. Independent studies have been contributed by researchers. A few reports have also appeared from India.
Amyloid degeneration of the conjunctiva has been described in two groups by i) Primary, ii) Secondary. The features of the primary type being the absence of antecedent or co-existant disease, involvement of mesodermal tissues and variability of the staining reaction. Those of the secondary type are tendency for nodular deposition, consistency in staining reaction of the amyloid material and involvement of the organs like spleen, kidney and liver. In most of the cases reported amyloid degeneration followed some chronic inflammation like trachoma. In all these reported cases bulbar conjunctiva seems to have been unaffected.
The etiology of amyloid degeneration in ocular tissues is unknown. Trachoma is said to be an important cause. Researchers suggested nutritional deficiency as a possible cause. Researchers considered amyloid degeneration as a subgroup of hyaline infiltration.
Organs affected by Abercrombies syndrome will typically become enlarged, smooth and hard. The tissue will take on a slightly white or yellow translucent appearance, similar to a bacon rind. Within the tissue, the cortex will also be bloodless. When the blood vessels or muscular overlay of an artery are affected, the tissue will thicken and become transparent. Commonly affected organs include the spleen, kidneys, pancreas and liver. Almost any organ or bodily tissue, however, can become affected by Abercrombie disease.
The symptoms of Abercrombies syndrome vary according to the tissue or organ affected. Since sufferers of this condition are commonly suffering from other wasting diseases, a person's symptoms might be overlooked. People suffering from Abercrombie syndrome of the kidneys may notice increased urine production, vomiting, diarrhea, bad breath, and edema. Those suffering from degeneration in other organs might notice similar symptoms or even symptoms more specific to the organ's function.
The presence of amyloid substance is determined by its physical characters and by certain color tests. The earliest known of this latter is the reaction with iodine. The iodine reaction is useful for roughly testing macroscopically at the time of the post-mortem. For this purpose a watery solution, consisting of iodine 10 grains, iodide of potassium 20 grains, and water 4 ounces, is poured on the surface of the structure to be tested. A mahogany-red color indicates the presence of amyloid matter. The further addition of dilute sulphuric acid sometimes produces a deeper red or a bluish color.
For microscopic purposes watery solutions of methylviolet or gentian violet as introduced by Cornil are most suitable. These dyes produce a rose-pink color with the amyloid substance, while normal tissues are stained blue. In testing by iodine microscopically a solution half the strength of that mentioned above is to be used.
The substance itself has a peculiar bright translucent glancing appearance, and, as the structures in which it occurs are enlarged, they are often remarkably prominent under the microscope. It is a very dense heavy material, and, after death, at least, is somewhat brittle, but the usual absence of hemorrhage in amyloid organs would seem to indicate that it is not so during life.
The treatment must be directed to the improvement of the blood, and to the rapid elimination of all septic material. The anemia which forms a conspicuous part of this disease must be treated with iron and other direct restoratives in order to facilitate the carrying of oxygen into the blood. The use of one or more of our excellent vegetable alternatives will produce favorable results. Echinacea stands at the head and with this there is phytolacca, polymnia, stillingia, baptisia, corydalis, yellow dock, burdock, and dandelion, with the specific liver remedies. These may be persisted in for weeks at a time with only good results. For their general tonic effect the glycerophosphates, hydrastis and strychnin will be selected.
Patients might also be advised to consume a nutritious diet and get regular exercise to inhibit further degeneration.
NOTE: The above information is for processing purpose. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care.
According to a Spanish research, led by Dr. Victoria Moreno-Arribas from the Spanish National Research Council in Madrid, drinking red wine may protect teeth by destroying bacteria causing cavities and gum disease. The researchers completed an experiment where they...
Numerous studies conducted earlier showed that regular exercises have a positive effect on physical and mental health. The new work of American scientists confirms this. They believe that running five kilometers once a day is useful for the hippocampus (the brain...
Quiz about this article
0 of 2 questions completed
Please answer on few questions to make our service more useful
You have already completed the quiz before. Hence you can not start it again.
Quiz is loading...
You must sign in or sign up to start the quiz.
You have to finish following quiz, to start this quiz:
0 of 2 questions answered correctly
Time has elapsed
You have reached 0 of 0 points, (0)
Question 1 of 2
Was this article useful for you?Correct
Thanks for your feedback!Incorrect
Thanks for your feedback!
Question 2 of 2
What else information about this disease you want to know ?Correct
Thanks for feedback!Incorrect
Thanks for feedback!
Many people spontaneously decide starting to do sport, while others weigh all the pros and cons for a log time. But almost all of them make the same mistakes, listening to the advice of non experts. There are 10 anti-tips for those who want to do plan to do some sport...read more
Spring is not far off and very soon you will see many people riding a bike. It's worth to join them and now we will give you the 8 reasons why. Weight control Scientists of the University of Surrey (England) found that it's enough riding a bike for an hour, and, not...read more
We all want to get in shape and keep fit. But not everyone has time for visiting the gym. Give up the elevator. Give up lifts and climb the stairs. At work, at home, at the mall. This simple advice is a great benefit if you follow it daily. Climbing the stairs...read more