- Hypertrophic/Bowenoid (thick areas of scale).
- Cutaneous horn: A horny protuberance, the majority are caused by actinic keratoses or warts but 15% are secondary to an underlying SCC.
- Lichenoid (smooth and shiny, mainly occurring in areas of friction).
- Actinic chelitis (lips).
- The use of artificial UV (ultraviolet) radiation such as UVB (ultraviolet B) and PUVA (psoralen plus ultraviolet light of A wavelength or Psoralin with Ultra Violet A) used to treatment psoriasis and a number of other skin conditions, as well as sun beds increase the risk.
- Genetic factors play a role and individuals with fair skin, blue eyes and blond hair are at higher risk.
- Men are more affected than women.
- Patients with Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) or Albinism can develop lesions at a very young age
- AKs can occasionally transform into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) - the presence of ten AKs is associated with a 14% risk of developing an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) within 5 years.
- There may be burning, itching or tenderness at the site.
- They may feel scaly or crusted onpalpation, and are better examined under intense lighting.
- Lesions may vary in size from 3-10 mm in diameter and enlargegradually.
- The lesions are usually poorly demarcated, appearing as slightly erythematous papules or plaques in areassuch as the face, balding scalp, posterior neck, upper chest and dorsal upper extremity.
- They often appearreddish in color with a white scale on top.
- Patients limiting their recreational sunlight exposure need to have an adequate dietary intake of vitamin D.
- The use of a moisturiser 2-3 times a day can be helpful in differentiating between areas of normal and abnormal skin.
- Curettage and electrodesiccation (scrapes away the lesion and uses electricity to kill any remaining cells).
- Excision (cutting the tumor out and using stitches to place the skin back together).
- Freezing (cryotherapy, which freezes and kills the cells).
- Laser Therapy.
- Photodynamic Therapy (PDT).
- Chemical Peels.
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