Aldosterone deficiency: Description, Causes and Risk Factors:Aldosterone: A mineralocorticoid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex; its major action is to facilitate potassium exchange for sodium in the distal renal tubule, causing sodium re-absorption and potassium and hydrogen loss; the principal mineralocorticoid. It exists in equilibrium with the aldehyde form.In Medicine, aldosterone deficiency refers to decreased levels of the hormone aldosterone. The term "isolated hypoaldosteronism" is used to describe lowered aldosterone without corresponding changes in cortisol.Aldosterone's main actions are to regulate intravascular volume and serum electrolytes by controlling sodium absorption and potassium excretion in the distal nephron. Inherited defects in aldosterone biosynthesis thus cause hypovolemia, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. Defective aldosterone biosynthesis may be caused by congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, in which case cortisol biosynthesis is also affected, or as an isolated defect termed aldosterone synthase (corticosterone methyloxidase deficiency). Many mutations have been documented in each of these genes; in general enzymatic activity must be reduced to <1% of normal for aldosterone biosynthesis to be impaired.Multiple factors regulate aldosterone secretion. Major regulators are the renin-angiotensin system and potassium ion, whereas minor modulators include ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) and other POMC (propiomelanocortin) peptides, sodium ion, dopamine, vasopressin ANP, ?-adrenergic agents, and somatostatin serotonin.There are several causes for this condition, including primary adrenal insufficiency, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and medications (certain diuretics, NSAIDs, and ACE inhibitors).Possible risk factors:Decreased renal renin production.
Deficiency in adrenal renin or other components of the autocrine adrenal renin-angiotensin system.
Acquired biosynthetic defects in aldosterone synthesis.
Aldosterone synthase deficiency.
Symptoms:Excessive urination and dehydration can occur when adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormone, aldosterone. Aldosterone deficiency can cause a low sodium level and high potassium level in the blood, which makes the kidneys unable to concentrate urine. This results in excessive urination that can lead to dehydration.Diagnosis:Patients suspected to have aldosterone deficiencyshould be questioned about the use of any drug or the presence of a disease that can impair aldosterone release, such as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, cyclosporine, heparin, or the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).These disorders can be differentiated by measurement of plasma renin activity (PRA) and serum aldosterone and cortisol. These tests should be performed after the administration of a loop diuretic or three hours in the upright position, which will increase renin and aldosterone release in normal, but not in these disease states.Treatment:Aldosterone deficiency should be treated with a mineralocorticoid (such as fludrocortisone), as well as possibly a glucocorticoid for cortisol deficiency, if present. Hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism is amenable to fludrocortisone treatment, but the accompanying hypertension and edema can prove a problem in these patients, so often a diuretic (such as the thiazide diuretic, bendroflumethiazide, or a loop diuretic, such as furosemide) is used to control the hyperkalemia.NOTE: The above information is educational purpose. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care.
You may experience an upset stomach from a wide range of causes including viruses, parasites, having a food allergy or sensitivity. Also, certain medications, such as antibiotics, can also affect the stomach function. When you have an upset stomach, the first thing to...
Recent research from the University of California – Berkeley, US, finds that the deep sleep, which is called non-rapid eye-movement slow-wave sleep (NREM), can calm and reset the anxious brain. To study the effect of the deep sleep, a team of researchers performed a...
No Results Found
The page you requested could not be found. Try refining your search, or use the navigation above to locate the post.
When it is so hot outside you still can find hundreds of ways to cool yourself and drinking a mocktail is one of them. Here are few wonderful recipes for you to try. Kiwi Sour 1 oz orange juice 3 slices kiwi 0.75 oz demerara green tea syrup 0.75 oz lime juice 1 oz...
Many people are motivated for active sports in spring. However, before you buy a membership, you should check which exercises are useful to you and which ones should not be done in any way. Unfortunately, nowadays there are practically no people with an absolutely...
In childhood, many of us dreamed of learning to jump high. Now, after years, it became easier - Kangoo Jumps has appeared. This is one of the relatively new, but quickly gaining popularity types of fitness training. There are several advantages of jumpers. ...
Privacy & Cookies Policy
Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. These cookies do not store any personal information.
Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website.