Articular cartilage damage
- grade 1: the cartilage has a soft spot or blisters.
- grade 2: minor tears visible in the cartilage.
- grade 3: lesions have deep crevices (more than 50% of cartilage layer).
- grade 4: the cartilage tear exposes the underlying (subchronal) bone.
- Degenerative, eg osteoarthritis.
- Inflammatory, eg rheumatoid arthritis.
- Others, eg Osteochondritis Dissecans.
- Swelling of the joint.
- Catching or giving way.
- Locking (where one is unable to fully straighten the joint).
- Arthroscopy - a tube-like instrument (arthroscope) is inserted into a joint to inspect and diagnose it. Repairs can also be carried out. This procedure can help determine the extent of cartilage damage.
- Abrasion Arthroplasty.
- Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACT).
- Osteochondral Autograft Transplantation.
- Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation.
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