Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease
- Insulin resistance.
- C. pneumoniae.
- H. pylori.
- Cytomegalovirus (CMV).
- Low risk: less than 1.0 mg/L.
- Average risk: 1.0 to 3.0 mg/L.
- High risk: above 3.0 mg/L.
- Lipoprotein (a) Lp(a). Elevation of plasma lipoprotein (a) above 30 mg/dL is a strong independent risk factor for coronary artery disease and possibly for stroke.
- Homocysteine. Elevation of the level of homocysteine in the plasma is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (including myocardial infarction, stroke, thromboembolic disease, and intermittent claudication).
- Fibrinogen: Although fibrinogen is needed for normal blood clotting, its excess may promote excessive clumping of platelets and can result in thrombosis in an artery, leading to a heart attack or stroke.
- Low HDL-C (High-density lipoprotein cholesterol).
- Elevated triglycerides
- Decreased performance, easy to tire out.
- Pain by physical activity, so called anoxic pain.
- By severe impairment of blood flow, tissue damage or sores can occur.
- Kidney disease.
- Mesenteric artery ischemia.
- Peripheral artery disease.
- Abdominal aortic aneurysm.
- Renal artery stenosis.
- Thoracic aortic aneurysm.
- Total fat intake should account for no more than 30% of energy intake, and intake of saturated fats should not exceed a third of total fat intake. The intake of cholesterol should be less than 300 mg/day.
- In an isocaloric diet, saturated fat can be replaced partly by complex carbohydrates, partly by monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats from vegetables and marine animals.
- Emblica officinalis (Indian gooseberry).
- Nardostachys jatamansi (jatamansi).
- Centella asiatica (manduka parni).
- Terminalia chebula (herde).
- Tinospora cordifolia (guduchi).
- Ocimum sanctum (basil).
- Myristica fragrans (nutmeg).
- Commiphora mukul (guggulu).
- Convolvulus pluricaulis (shankhpushpi).
- Terminalia arjuna (arjuna).
- Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek).
- Withania somnifera (ashvagandha).
- Zingiber officinale (ginger).
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