Description, Causes and Risk Factors:
Gallop cadence in which the gallop sound in late diastole is an audible fourth heart sound due to forceful ventricular filling following atrial systole.
An atrial gallop is a low-pitched sound that originates from left atrial contraction and is best heard with the bell of the stethoscope pressed lightly against the cardiac apex. It is best heard before the first heart sound (S1), late in diastole.
An atrial gallop is produced by a fourth heart sound, called S4. It's another low-pitched sound heard best over the apex. However, S4 is heard late in diastole, just prior to S1. S4 is normal in infants and children and common in the elderly. In adults, however, S4 often occurs after myocardial infarction. S4 is also linked to aortic stenosis, myocardial ischemia, heart failure, and hypertension. It's caused when stiff and over-distended ventricles are forced to accept blood from the atria during late diastole, when the atria exert their final squeeze, called the atrial kick.
Overloading of the ventricle.
Fibrosis of the ventricle.
Hypertrophy of the ventricle.
S2 may be soft or absent and a soft short midsystolic murmur may be heard over the second right intercostals space.
Other signs and symptoms include tachycardia, dyspnea, JVD (jugular vein distention), crackles, cool extremities, tachycardia, tachypnea, and angina.
Atrial gallop is accompanied by a soft, short diastolic murmur along the left sternal border.
Suspect myocardial ischemia if you auscultate an atrial gallop in a patient with chest pain. Check the patient's vital signs and assess for signs of heart failure. If you detect these signs, attach the patient to a cardiac monitor and obtain an electrocardiogram to assess the patient's cardiac status. When the patient's condition permits, ask about a history of hypertension, angina, valvular stenosis, or cardiomyopathy.
The main goals of treatment of atrial gallop are to prevent temporary circulatory instability and to prevent stroke. Anticoagulation may be required to decrease the risk of the latter while rate and rhythm control are principally used to achieve the former. When circulatory collapse is imminent in emergency cases due to uncontrolled tachycardia, immediate cardioversion may be indicated. If rate and rhythm control of the atrial gallop cannot be maintained by medication or cardioversion, electrophysiological studies with pathway ablation may be required.
NOTE: The above information is for educational purpose. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care.
A new study from Harvard University finds that people in a good mood, when feeling happy, seek out for the company of strangers while sad people seek out the company of friends. For the study, a team of researchers kept tabs on more than 30,000 people who were mostly...
Here is the list of nine user-friendly gym machines for women that are intimidated by barbells, bumper plates, and squat racks by Robin Cortez, director of team training for Chuze Fitness, which has clubs in California, Colorado and Arizona: Smith machine — used for...
When it is so hot outside you still can find hundreds of ways to cool yourself and drinking a mocktail is one of them. Here are few wonderful recipes for you to try. Kiwi Sour 1 oz orange juice 3 slices kiwi 0.75 oz demerara green tea syrup 0.75 oz lime juice 1 oz...read more
Many people are motivated for active sports in spring. However, before you buy a membership, you should check which exercises are useful to you and which ones should not be done in any way. Unfortunately, nowadays there are practically no people with an absolutely...read more
In childhood, many of us dreamed of learning to jump high. Now, after years, it became easier - Kangoo Jumps has appeared. This is one of the relatively new, but quickly gaining popularity types of fitness training. There are several advantages of jumpers. ...read more