Description, Causes and Risk Factors:
Lymphoma is a cancer of the white blood cells, namely lymphocytes. Lymphoma is the most common blood cancer and the third most common cancer of childhood. Lymphoma occurs when lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, grow abnormally. The body has two types of lymphocytes: B lymphocytes, or B-cells, and T lymphocytes, or T-cells. Although both cell types can develop into lymphomas, B-cell lymphomas are more common.
A B-cell is a type of lymphocyte that produces antibodies to fight infections. These are the most prevalent lymphocytes in the bloodstream and are crucial to building a strong immune system. Not only do they fight infections, they also generate "memory" cells that can be reproduced in the case of a repeat attack.
B-cell lymphoma occurs when B-cells mutate and become cancerous. Subsequently, as the cancerous B-cells clone themselves, the cancer proliferates. B cell lymphomas comprise a few dozen individual cancers, that affect the B-cells in the lymphatic system. However, the most common type of B-cell lymphoma is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
B cell lymphoma originates in 2 varieties, namely Hodgkin lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The prognosis of the illness varies with the form of lymphoma one has contracted. Hodgkin lymphoma has been observed to showcase larger possibilities of survival compared to instances of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Stages: Stages I and II fall within the class of initial levels involving malignancy of only one or 2 teams of lymph nodes. Phases III and IV termed as later phases project the invasion of cancer within the inside organs such as the bone marrow and blood.
Chromosomal translocations involving the immunoglobulin loci are a hallmark of many types of B-cell lymphoma. Other factors, however, also have important roles in the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies. Most B-cell lymphomas depend on the expression of a B-cell receptor (BCR) for survival, and in several B-cell malignancies antigen activation of lymphoma cells through BCR signaling seems to be an important factor for lymphoma pathogenesis.
B-cell lymphomas usually have genetic origins, though they are also linked to environmental factors, immunodeficiency, viruses, and connective tissue disorders (CTD). To put it bluntly, there is no truthful answer to, "What causes B-cell lymphoma?" The "causes" are not entirely understood, so it is more helpful to focus on risk factors.
Risk Factors May Include:
Autoimmune diseases: The immune system constantly attacks a certain part of the body.
Chronic infections: These cause the immune system to generate new lymphocytes at a high rate, thereby increasing the risk of cancerous mutation.
Immune deficiencies: These deficiencies can be genetic, drug-induced, linked to organ transplants, caused by chemical exposure, or be the result of other diseases such as HIV/AIDS.
Symptoms may include:
Unintentional or unexplained weight loss.
Fatigue or tiredness.
Pain or bloating in the abdomen.
Chest pain or a persistent cough.
Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, and/or groin.
The first step in any diagnosis is a physical exam. The doctor will likely search for any swollen nodes and examine your spleen and liver. They will also record a medical history. If cancer is suspected following tests may be ordered:
Tissue Biopsy: A sample of bone marrow (the spongy materialinside your bones) is taken from your hip using athin needle.
Blood Tests: Blood is taken from your arm through a thinneedle. Doctors then look at your red blood cells,white blood cells, and blood platelets under amicroscope.
Spinal Tap (lumbar puncture): Fluid is taken from your spine (lower part of yourback) using a thin needle.This is done only incertain situations.
CT Scan: A large machine (like an x-ray) takes pictures ofyour body from many angles.This shows doctorswhere the lymphoma tumors are in your body.
MRI: This test uses magnets and radio waves to showwhether lymphoma has spread to your nervoussystem or other body organs.
MUGA Scan: This type of scan shows how well your heartmuscle is working.
PET Scan: This type of scan shows doctors if certain lymphnodes still have the disease.
X-Rays: This test uses radiation to take pictures of theinside of your body.
Biopsy: Tissue cells are taken out with a needle or bysurgery.
Treatment for B-cell lymphomas differs based on the type of cancer and the staging. It also depends on how fast the cancer is growing and the patient's age and medical history. A medical oncologist, hematologist, or radiation oncologist will treat the patient with the most aggressive and successful treatment that his or her body can handle. Cancer patients have more options through clinical studies.
Treatment Options May Include:
Stem cell transplantation.
Side effects usually present.
NOTE: The above information is educational purpose. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care.
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