- Using tampons.
- Hormonal changes - During pregnancy, it is more difficult to empty your bladder properly which can lead to a build up of bacteria. Postmenopause, a reduction in oestrogen levels means the bladder is not as resistant to infection.
- Diabetes - increased sugar levels in urine stimulates bacterial growth.
- Catheters can damage the urethra and cause infection to spread to the bladder.
- Bowel incontinence.
- Not drinking enough fluids.
- Frequent need to pass small amounts of urine.
- Urinary incontinence.
- Cloudy/dark urine.
- Foul smelling urine.
- Pain in the lower abdomen and back.
- Malaise or a general feeling of being unwell.
- Urine culture.
- Ultrasound imaging of bladder and kidneys.
- Vaginal examination.
- Intravenous urography.
- Micturition cystourethrogram.
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