Bacterial vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis: Description, Causes and Risk Factors:Abbreviation: BV.Infection of the human vagina that may be caused by anaerobic bacteria, especially by Mobiluncus species or by Gardnerella vaginalis. Characterized by excessive, sometimes malodorous, discharge.Alternative Names: Gardnerella vaginitis, nonspecific vaginitis.The cause of Bacterial vaginosis is not fully understood. BV is associated with an imbalance in the bacteria that are normally found in a woman's vagina. The vagina normally contains mostly “good” bacteria, and fewer “harmful” bacteria. BV develops when there is an increase in harmful bacteria.Bacterial vaginosis is characterized by an overgrowth of predominantly anaerobic organisms (Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella species, Mycoplasma hominis, Mobiluncus species) in the vagina, leading to replacement of lactobacilli and an increase in pH from less than 4.5 to as high as 7.0. Spontaneous onset and remission of Bacterial vaginosis can occur. Whilst BV is not regarded as a sexually transmitted disease, the prevalence is generally higher amongst sexually active than non-sexually active women. It is more common in black women than white, those with an intrauterine contraceptive device, and those who smoke.Prevalence has been estimated at 10-30% of pregnant women and 10% of family practice patients. Bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy is associated with premature rupture of the membranes, chorioamnionitis, preterm labor, preterm birth and post-cesarean delivery endometritis.Bacterial vaginosisRisk Factors:Antibiotics.
  • Do not use antibacterial wipes or alcohol wipes on your vagina when simply cleaning up.
  • Spermicides.
  • Vaginal hygiene products such as deodorants, perfumes, douches, scented tampons, etc.
  • Detergents.
  • Fabric softeners.
  • Multiple sex partners.
  • Tight clothing, poor general health, and poor hygiene.
  • Hormonal changes such as stress, menstruation, pregnancy, and birth control pills.
Symptoms:Women with Bacterial vaginosis may have an abnormal vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor. Some women report a strong fish-like odor, especially after sex. The discharge can be white (milky) or gray. It may also be foamy or watery. Other symptoms may include burning when urinating, itching around the outside of the vagina, and irritation.Diagnosis:A healthcare worker can examine a sample of vaginal fluid under a microscope, either stained or in special lighting, to detect the presence of the organisms associated with BV. They can make a diagnosis based on the absence of lactobacilli, the presence of numerous "clue cells" (cells from the vaginal lining that are coated with Bacterial vaginosis organisms), a fishy odor, and decreased acidity or change in pH of vaginal fluid.Treatment:Although BV will sometimes clear up without treatment, all women with symptoms of BV should be treated to avoid complications.Bacterial vaginosis is treatable with antibiotics prescribed by a health care provider. Two different antibiotics are recommended as treatment for BV: Metronidazole or clindamycin. Either can be used with non-pregnant or pregnant women, but the recommended dosages differ.Disclaimer:The above information is just informative purpose. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care.

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