Description, Causes and Risk Factors:
Bacteroides organisms have been recognized as important infectious agents in man, although veterinary surgeons have been aware of their pathogenicity for many years.
Bacteroides are genus that includes many species of obligate anaerobic, nonsporeforming bacteria containing Gram-negative rods. Both motile and nonmotile species occur; motile cells are peritrichous. Some species ferment carbohydrates and produce combinations of succinic, lactic, acetic, formic, or propionic acids, sometimes with short-chained alcohols; butyric acid is not a major product. Those species which do not ferment carbohydrates produce from peptone either trace to moderate amounts of succinic, formic, acetic, and lactic acids or major amounts of acetic and butyric acids with moderate amounts of alcohols and isovaleric, propionic, and isobutyric acids. They are part of the normal flora of the intestinal tract and to a lesser degree, the respiratory, and urogenital cavities of humans and animals; many species formerly classified as Bacteroides have been reclassified as belonging to the genus Prevotella. Many species can be pathogenic. The type species is Bacteroides fragilis.
Bacteroides bacilli are anaerobic, Gram-negative, saprophytes. They are classified in two groups on a morphologic basis, Bacteroides funduliform-is and Bacteroides fragilis. These bacteria are normal residents within the human body, abundant in the mouth, the female genital tract and the intestine. In the intestine, they outnumber the more familiar Escherichia coli. Bacteroides bacilli are difficult to isolate, since they frequently occur with other anaerobic micro-organisms. They are small and grow very slowly. Therefore, they may be overlooked in stained preparations or overgrown by other bacteria on agar plates.
Bacteroides account for as much as 30% of all faecal isolates and form an important part of the normal flora of the gut. They are bile resistant and the principle pathogenic species is B. fragilis. Members of the anaerobic genus fusobacterium are also important in both the normal flora and infection. Six species are common inhabitants of the oral cavity, GI tract, and the genital tract.
The incubation period is usually two to six days.
Signs & Symptoms
High body temperature.
High Sed Rate.
If the infection is localized without accessiblepus, the diagnosis cannot be made. Bacteroides infectionshould be considered when a septicemiafollows bowel or pelvic operations. Anaerobictechniques must be used for cultures of pus orblood.
Several anaerobic culture systems are available. Normal blood agar plates can be used. Species are identified by gram stain, resistance to bile, antimicrobial susceptibility, and a battery of biochemical tests.
Surgical management includes adequate drainage of walled-off foci, excision of accessible necrotic tissue and possibly ligation of thrombosed veins. Bacteroides may be resistant to streptomycin and as well in varying degree to penicillin. In 14 cases, in vitro studies carried out with Bacteroides, using streptomycin, sulfadiazine, penicillin and tetracycline, showed that tetracycline was the most effective drug. Satisfactory clinical results with tetracycline have been reported. However, sulfathiazole has been used successfully in urinary tract infections. Some strains are sensitive to oxytetracycline. Failures in treatment have been reported although the micro-organisms in such cases were sensitive in vitro to an antibiotic.
The clinical experience of several writers suggests that tetracycline may be the most effective antibiotic with which to commence treatment of a Bacteroides infection while awaiting the results of sensitivity tests.
Disclaimer:The above information is just informative purpose. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care.
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