Balamuthia: Description, Causes and Risk Factors:A genus of free-living ameba that causes granulomatous amebic encephalitis.Balamuthia infection is very rare. The Balamuthia amebas can infect the skin, sinuses, brain and other organs of the body. Therefore, Balamuthia infection can cause a wide range of symptoms. Disease can begin with a skin wound on the face, trunk, or limbs and can then progress to the brain where it cause a disease called granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE).Balamuthia can also cause a widespread infection involving multiple body parts. The disease might appear mild at first but can become more severe over weeks to several months. Often the disease is fatal, with a death rate of more than 95%. Overall, the outlook for people who get this disease is poor, although early diagnosis and treatment may increase the chances for survival.Balamuthia mandrillaris is an emerging opportunistic protozoan pathogen, a member of the group of free-living amoebae. This infection is known to cause serious cutaneous infections and fatal encephalitis involving the central nervous system (CNS), with a case fatality rate of >98% (total estimated number of cases, 120). Despite such poor prognosis, the pathogenesis and pathophysiology associated withBalamuthia amoebic encephalitis (BAE) remain incompletely understood.This ameba is responsible for sporadic meningoencephalitis, with mortality rates near 100%. About 200 cases have been reported Worldwide. Balamuthia ameba spread hematogeneously from a cutaneous, ocular, or pulmonary lesion to the CNS, where vasculitis dominates the clinical picture. Many patients are immunocompromised, but some are immunocompetent.Symptoms:Headaches.
Stiff neck or head and neck pain with neck movement.
Sensitivity to light.
Other signs of balamuthia-induced granulomatous amoebic encephalitis include:Behavioral changes.
Diagnosis:Balamuthia-induced granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) is a serious infection of the brain and spinal cord caused by balamuthia. GAE is often diagnosed only after death. However, it can be diagnosed by examining blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and tissue samples from a living patient as well. Diagnosis of GAE in a living patient is less common because the amebas are difficult to identify under the microscope, even with commonly used stains.However, there are three types of tests that can help confirm the diagnosis of GAE. The indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is a test used to detect antibodies attached to Balamuthia amebas in body tissues. In contrast, immunohistochemistry (IHC) uses specific antibodies against this to detect the amebas. Finally, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) molecular assay can detect Balamuthia DNA.Treatment:Current methods of treatment include a combination approach, where a mixture of drugs is administered, and even then the outcome remains extremely poor. There is an urgent need for improved antimicrobial chemotherapy and/or alternative strategies to develop therapeutic interventions. There is also a tremendous need for education (recognition of possible cases earlier in the infection, as well as prevention possibilities).NOTE: The above information is educational purpose. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care.
New research, conducted by the scientists from King’s College London, UK, and China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan, suggests that taking omega-3 supplements may help improve attention in some children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The...
A new study from the University at Buffalo, US, finds that insufficient sleep, less than 5 hours per night, can be harmful to bone health of postmenopausal women. For the study, a team of researchers analyzed health data from 11,084 postmenopausal women who...
No Results Found
The page you requested could not be found. Try refining your search, or use the navigation above to locate the post.
When it is so hot outside you still can find hundreds of ways to cool yourself and drinking a mocktail is one of them. Here are few wonderful recipes for you to try. Kiwi Sour 1 oz orange juice 3 slices kiwi 0.75 oz demerara green tea syrup 0.75 oz lime juice 1 oz...
Many people are motivated for active sports in spring. However, before you buy a membership, you should check which exercises are useful to you and which ones should not be done in any way. Unfortunately, nowadays there are practically no people with an absolutely...
In childhood, many of us dreamed of learning to jump high. Now, after years, it became easier - Kangoo Jumps has appeared. This is one of the relatively new, but quickly gaining popularity types of fitness training. There are several advantages of jumpers. ...
Privacy & Cookies Policy
Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. These cookies do not store any personal information.
Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website.