Balanoposthitis: Description, Causes and Risk Factors:Balanoposthitis is an inflammation of the glans and foreskin of the penis. It can occur in patients of all ages and may have infectious or non-infectious causes. Untreated balanoposthitis can increase the risk of cancers and interfere with fertility. This condition can be treated by urologist or a General practitioner and usually treatment is an outpatient procedure that can be performed in a clinic or Doctor's office.This condition is a combination of balanitis, an inflammation of the glans, and posthitis, an inflammation of the foreskin, also known as the prepuce. Patients with balanoposthitis usually experience soreness and irritation and may observe a discharge at the site. Visual changes such as redness and rough skin can also be seen. There may also be a rash in the groin if the inflammation has been left untreated.One reason for a patient to develop balanoposthitis is an infection with viruses, bacteria, or yeasts. People can also develop inflammation as a result of a tight prepuce, a condition which is usually treated with circumcision. Underlying medical conditions such as diabetes and connective tissue disorders can also be associated with balanoposthitis. People who are at special risk of inflammation and infection may be advised to use special care to prevent and rapidly address any inflammations that which flare up.Balanoposthitis should be taken seriously and treated with adequate therapy because it can become chronic when the mucosa becomes shiny, smooth, thinned and of decreased elasticity. Potential complications of the disease are the development of phimosis (inability to coat the drag over the skin) and paraphimosis (brim of the skin tightened behind the glans, followed by swelling).Symptoms:These include pain, swelling and redness around the glans and foreskin. Other symptoms include erythematous rash with soreness and itch, preputial edema, superficial erosion, inguinal adenitis. There may be hemorrhagic vesicles and rarely blisters and ulcers.Diagnosis:Potassium hydroxide (KOH) slide preparation and culture for Candida species. A KOH preparation allows for the rapid visualization of the Candidal hyphae.Culture often isolates Candidal species in these cases and helps to direct proper treatment.Rarely, serologic tests for Candidal species may be indicated, particularly in unclear cases and for academic interest.Treatment:If the cause is non-infectious, the doctor needs to determine what it is in order to provide the most appropriate treatment. Treating an underlying condition may resolve the issue. In the event the patient has recurrent balanoposthitis or posthitis, the doctor may recommend circumcision to prevent future episodes of inflammation.NOTE: The above information is educational purpose. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care.
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