Buruli ulcer

Buruli ulcer: Description, Causes and Risk Factors:An ulcer of the skin, with widespread necrosis of subcutaneous fat, due to infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans; occurs in Uganda in persons living on the Nile river banks.Information gathered from scientific literature shows that Buruli ulcer has been reported in 33 countries in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Western Pacific. Most cases occur in tropical and subtropical regions except in Australia, China and Japan. Out of the 33 countries 15 regularly report data to WHO.The majority of cases are reported from West and Central Africa, including Benin, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ghana. In recent years Australia has been reporting a higher number of cases.In 2015, 13 of the 15 countries that regularly report data to WHO reported nearly 2037 new cases. Except for a few countries, the number of cases has generally declined since 2010. The exact cause of decline is unknown.Buruli ulcer is considered a re-emerging disease in west Africa where it has suffered neglect over the years, though children below the age of 16 years are the worst affected in most endemic regions. Due to delayed health seeking, the disease leads to disabilities resulting from amputation and loss of vital organs like the eye leading to school dropout and other social and economic consequences for the affected family.Buruli ulcerBuruli ulcer is a disease that affects the skin and subcutaneous tissues. The causative organism is called Mycobacterium ulcerans, which although different, belongs to the same family of organisms that cause leprosy and tuberculosis. The exact mode of transmission of M. ulcerans is still unknown. However, it appears that different modes of transmission occur in different geographic areas and epidemiological settings. There may be some role for living agents as reservoirs and as vectors of M. ulcerans, in particular aquatic insects, adult mosquitoes or other biting arthropods.Buruli ulcer has been reported in over 30 countries with tropical and subtropical climates but it may also occur in some countries where it has not yet been recognized. Limited knowledge of the disease, its focal distribution and the fact that it affects mainly poor rural communities contribute to low reporting of cases. Progress is being made now to develop tools for early diagnosis, to understand exactly how infection is transmitted and to improve treatment.Most cases are from west Africa notably Benin, C

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