Cerebral palsy: DiscriptionA generic term for various types of non-progressive motor dysfunction present at birth or beginning in early childhood. Causes are both hereditary and acquired; depending upon cause, classified as intrauterine, natal, and early postnatal; motor disturbances include diplegia, hemiplegia, quadriplegia, choreoathetosis, and ataxia.Alternative Names: Spastic hemiplegia, spastic paralysis, spastic diplegia, and spastic quadriplegia.Abbreviation: CP.Cerebral palsy is a condition that affects motor skills development between the brain and certain nerves and muscles in the body. The disease is most apt to occur during the time of fetal development or at infancy. While cerebral palsy can affect both the upper and lower extremities, when the disease is associated with the legs, it is known as cerebral palsy spastic diplegia.Types:Spastic Cerebral Palsy: About 70 to 80 percent of affected individuals have spastic cerebral palsy, in which muscles are stiff, making movement difficult. When both legs are affected (spastic diplegia), a child may have difficulty walking because tight muscles in the hips and legs cause legs to turn inward and cross at the knees (called scissoring). In other cases, only one side of the body is affected (spastic hemiplegia), often with the arm more severely affected than the leg. Most severe is spastic quadriplegia, in which all four limbs and the trunk are affected, often along with the muscles controlling the mouth and tongue. Children with spastic quadriplegia have mental retardation and other problems.Dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy: About 10 to 20 percent have the dyskinetic form, which affects the entire body. It is characterized by fluctuations in muscle tone (varying from too tight to too loose) and sometimes is associated with uncontrolled movements (which can be slow and writhing or rapid and jerky). Children often have trouble learning to control their bodies well enough to sit and walk. Because muscles of the face and tongue can be affected, there also can be difficulties with sucking, swallowing and speech.Ataxic Cerebral Palsy: About 5 to 10 percent have the ataxic form, which affects balance and coordination. They may walk with an unsteady gait and have difficulty with motions that require precise coordination, such as writing.The prevalence of cerebral palsy is approximately 1.5-2.5 cases per 1000 live births. The incidence of cerebral palsy has not changed in more than 4 decades, despite significant advances in the medical care of neonates.Cerebral palsy is a lifelong disorder. Long-term care may be required. The disorder does not affect expected length of life. The amount of disability varies.Many adults are able to live in the community, either independently or with different levels of help. In severe cases, the person may need to be placed in an institution.With treatment, most children can significantly improve their abilities. Although symptoms may change over time, cerebral palsy by definition is not progressive, so if increased impairment occurs, the problem may be something other than cerebral palsy. Many children with cerebral palsy have other problems that require treatment. These include mental retardation; learning disabilities; seizures; and vision, hearing and speech problems.Symptoms:Cerebral palsy signs aren't the same for every child. This is because there are various types of the disorder. The signs and symptoms also therefore tend to differ.Cerebral palsy may cause a number of symptoms, including seizures, spasms, visual and hearing problems, hyperactivity, and learning disorders.Other symptoms of cerebral palsy include.Speech problem.
- Visual and hearing problem.
- Motormental and mental retardation.
- Peg teeth.
- Delayed in the development of motor skills.
- Unbalanced breathing.
- Difficulty sucking or feeding.
- Brain haemorrhages.
- Head injury following falls, accidents, and abuse.
- Drowning accidents.
- Jaundice - severe jaundice can result in brain damage.
- Rh Incompatibility - can cause jaundice, this is a condition where the mother's immune system attacks the fetus.
- Oxygen Shortage - a shortage of oxygen during birth can cause brain damage to the child.
- Stroke - a stroke in the fetus can occur if the mother suffers from coagulation disorders.
- Toxicity - Drug or alcohol use can result in brain damage.
- Bleeding - bleeding in the brain of the infant after birth can cause brain damage.
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