- Viral Infections (e.g. Mumps, glandular fever, rubella, toxoplasmosis and peritonsillar abscess).
- Fungal infections.
- Parasitic infections.
- Sexually transmitted disease such as syphilis, HIV.
- Cervical lymphadenitis.
- Strep throat.
- Cat scratch disease.
- Dental infection.
- Kawasaki disease.
- Viral pharyngitis.
- Viral syndrome.
- Swollen lymph nodes in the neck have been associated with known mercury toxicity.
- Certain drugs too causes cervical lymph node swelling.
- Infected external ear: Infected pierced earring site, erysipelas, otitis externa.
- Swollen lymph nodes under the jaw.
- Neck swelling.
- Lumps under the skin.
- Neck pain.
- Facial swelling.
- Weight loss.
- Night sweats.
- Sore throat.
- Red throat.
- Muscle aches and stiffness.
- Difficulty swallowing.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Look in the pharynx for exudate.
- Note the lymph node distribution and size, and whether they are fixed, tender, or fixed.
- Have the patient bend the head forward and palpate along the trapezius.
- Have the patient lift their chin and palpate under the mandible.
- Ultrasonography can be combined with fine needle aspiration cytology in which a sample of cells from the lymph node is aspirated using a needle and examined under the microscope.
- Ultrasound is a useful imaging modality in evaluation of cervical lymphadenopathy because of its high sensitivity (98%) and specificity (95%) when combined with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC).
- If the swelling is caused by infection, antibiotics medications may be prescribed.
- Applying warm compresses and elevating the affected area may also help to reduce swelling.
- People with immune disorders may also be prescribed medication to reduce swelling. A localized abscess may need to be drained by cutting the skin open and removing the infected material and careful examination under microscope. More severe episodes of swelling are often due to malignancy require appropriate treatment.
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