Cervicitis


Cervicitis

Description, Causes and Risk Factors:

Alternative Name: Trachelitis.

Cervicitis is an inflammation of the lining of the cervix. The cervix is the tip of the uterus (womb), and extends down into the vagina. Men have no cervix, and therefore cannot get cervicitis. However, men can get a similar inflammation in the tube of the penis, called urethritis.

Types:

    Endocervicitis: Generally caused by gonorrhea, Chlamydia, or HSV.

  • Ectocervicitis: Causes include trichomonas, HSV, syphilis (rare).

Cervicitis can be caused by bacteria such as Chlamydia, gonorrhea, gardnerella, and mycoplasm; by the herpes virus or from trichomonas or candida. Inflammatory process is caused by certain infectious agents, can result in an ascending infection of the upper genital tract. Clinically, mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC) is characterized by a yellow or green endocervical exudate visible in the endocervical canal or on an endocervical swab specimen.

Risk Factors May include:

    High-risk sexual behavior.

  • History of sexually transmitted disease (Chlamydia, gonorrhea, Herpes virus (genital herpes), Human papillomavirus (genital warts), trichomoniasis).

  • Many sexual partners.

  • Sexual intercourse at an early age.

Symptoms:

Cervicitis

Most women with cervicitis have no symptoms. If symptoms are experienced, they mayinclude abnormal vaginal discharge (drip); bloody spotting between menstrual periods;pain during or after vaginal sex, and spotting after sex. Cervicitis may also be accompanied byan infection of the urethra, the tube that empties the bladder, and in these cases, symptomsmay include burning or pain during urination.

Diagnosis:

Examination of cervix:Wipe mucus away from ectocervix, then observe for mucopurulent endocervical discharge, erythema, ulceration, edema, edematous ectopy, leukoplakia.

A pelvic examination may show:

    Discharge from the cervix.

  • Redness of the cervix.

  • Swelling (inflammation) of the walls of the vagina.

3. Swab test: Insert white cotton-tip swab into the os (endocervix).

  • Positive =yellow or green pus on swab.

  • Negative = cloudy or clear mucus.

  • Friability =blood on swab.

4. Obtain slide for Gram stain of endocervical secretions.

5. Obtain endocervical samples for gonorrhea and Chlamydia testing.

Treatment:

Because cervicitis can be caused by sexually transmitted infections that require immediate attention such as Chlamydia and gonorrhea, your provider may treat you with antibiotics even before final laboratory test results are back, just to be safe.

If the cervicitis is considered to be bacterial, it is usually treated with antibiotics. If the cause is the herpes virus, there is no cure, but the course can be shortened with an antiviral medication. Take all of the medication you are given, even if the symptoms start to go away before the medicine is gone. If you stop taking the medicine, you may leave some of the infection in your body.

If the cause is bacterial, male partners are usually also treated with the antibiotic to prevent reinfection, though they will usually not have symptoms. It is usually recommended to avoid sexual intercourse until both partners have completed treatment.

Other treatment options may include:

    Cryosurgery.

  • Electrocauterization.

  • Hormonal therapy (especially in postmenopausal women).

  • Laser therapy.

NOTE: The above information is educational purpose. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.

DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care.

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