- Superficial partial-thickness. Very painful burns sensitive to temperature change and air exposure. More commonly referred to as second-degree burns. Typically, they blister and are moist, red, weeping burns which blanch with pressure. They heal in 7 to 21 days. Scarring is usually confined to changes in skin pigment.
- Deep partial-thickness. Blistering or easily unroofed burns which are wet or waxy dry, and are painful to pressure. Their color may range from patchy, cheesy white to red, and they do not blanch with pressure. They take over 21 days to heal and scarring may be severe. It is sometimes difficult to differentiate these burns from full-thickness burns.
- Full-thickness. Burns which cause the skin to be waxy white to a charred black and tend to be painless. Healing is very slow, if at all, and may require skin grafting. Severe scarring usually occurs.
- Manner of contact.
- Quantity of agent.
- Phase (liquid/solid).
- Duration of contact.
- Mechanism of action.
- Extent of penetration.
- Concrete mix.
- Drain or toilet bowl cleaners.
- Metal cleaners.
- Pool chlorinators.
- Pain or numbness at the site of contact.
- Formation of blisters or black dead skin at the contact site.
- Vision changes if the chemical gets into the eyes.
- Cough or shortness of breath.
- Rapid evaluation of the chemical's ability to damage tissue.
- Determination of the extent of injury.
- Blood tests and other studies to determine if the patient should be admitted to the hospital.
- Determination of additional injuries and treatment.
- Debridement of devitalized tissue/particles.
- Topical antimicrobials.
- Tetanus Td.
- Aggressive IVF replacement.
- Allergic RXN (reaction): antihistamines, steroids, epinephrine.
- Surgical excision: if ongoing tissue destruction.
- Grafts: full thickness.
- Hyperbaric oxygen.
- People should always follow directions and safety precautions on the label provided by the manufacturer when using any chemicals.
- Wear safety gloves clothing and eye protection when using most chemicals, and remember - safety first!
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