Chlamydia pneumoniae

Chlamydia pneumonia: Description, Causes and Risk Factors:Chlamydia pneumoniae belongs to those gram-negative bacteria which are obligate intracellular energy parasites and which colonize in a first step the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. They are distributed by monocytes in the circulation and can be detected in the plaques of atherosclerotic arteries, in the synovia and even in nerve tissue.The incubation period for infections is approximately 3-4 weeks. In most cases the infection runs a sub-clinical course or produces symptoms resembling those of influenza, and many infections consequently remain unrecognized. This results in chronic infections with serious sequelae. The inflammatory reactions are repeatedly triggered by frequent re-infections.There are many different types of pneumonia and it can be caused by viruses, parasites and fungi as well as by bacteria like Chlamydia. Of the three types of C. pneumoniae is the one most commonly found to cause infections. As well as causing Chlamydia pneumonia, it can cause milder diseases such as bronchitis or inflammation of the airways.The overall incidence is unknown. Each year, an estimated 2-5 million cases of pneumonia and 500,000 pneumonia-related hospitalizations occur in the United States.Symptoms:Chlamydia pneumonia
  • Cough.
  • Mild fever.
  • Pharyngitis.
  • Pneumonitis.
  • Hoarseness.
  • Headache.
  • Abdominal discomfort.
  • Fatigue.
Diagnosis:The diagnosis of infection can be based on Direct microscopy & serology. Tests for the pathogen or antigen often give false negative results. Attempts to isolate the pathogen by culture are subject to numerous interfering factors. A standardized, commercial PCR is not available. Serology is the method of choice for the diagnosis of infections. The microimmunofluorescence test (MIF), despite having to be evaluated subjectively, is accepted as the gold standard, although it has not been standardized. To date, the species-specific ELISA tests play the major role.Related: Chlamydia test for men and womenTreatment:Usually low, with elderly individuals at increased risk for severe disease has been associated with arthritis and atherosclerotic heart disease in epidemiologic studies. Well-designed secondary prevention trials using antibiotics active against C. pneumoniae have been uniformly negative raising questions about the signi?cance of the association with coronary artery disease.Treatment with antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, ?uoroquinolones and their derivatives [such as Quixin™], and tetracycline [such as Novo-Tetra]). In severe cases, treatment with intravenous antibiotics and oxygen supplementation may be required.NOTE: The above information is educational purpose. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care. 

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