Cholera

Cholera: Description, Causes and Risk Factors:Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Cholera is an infection of the small intestine. The infection is often mild or without symptoms, but sometimes it can be severe.CholeraTypes: Cholera infantum, pancreatic,  morbus, asiatic, sicca, and typhoid.Cholera has been very rare in industrialized nations for the last 100 years; however, the disease is still common today in other parts of the world, including the Indian subcontinent and sub-Saharan Africa.It is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae). There are more than 100 serotypes of V. cholerae, but there are only two types that affect humans:V. cholerae O1.
  • V. cholerae O139.
Vibrio cholerae is a comma-shaped, curved gram negative rods, which are motile. Vibrio cholerae produces a toxic substance called "enterotoxin" this causes cholera.The bacterium that causes cholera, Vibrio cholerae, has two distinct life cycles — one in the environment and one in humans. This bacteria can lie dormant in water for long periods, and contaminated public wells are frequent sources of large-scale cholera outbreaks.A person may get cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. In an epidemic, the source of the contamination is usually the feces (stool) of an infected person. The disease can spread rapidly in areas with inadequate treatment of sewage and drinking water. Contaminated water supplies are the main source of infection, although raw shellfish, uncooked fruits and vegetables, and other foods also can harbor cholera bacteria.The disease is not likely to spread directly from one person to another; therefore, casual contact with an infected person is not a risk for becoming ill.Symptoms:Symptoms include:Nausea. Diagnosis and Tests:In order to make a  diagnosis, the doctor will ask a number of questions includes:1. Recent history of foods or drinks.2. Recent travel history.3. Current medical conditions.4. Current medicines.If the doctor suspects the disease, he or she will ask for a stool sample for examination.Microscopic Examination:Dark field Microscopic examination of stool sample shows rapidly motile Vibrio bacteria.Cultural Characters:1. Peptone water is inoculated with fresh stool and incubated 8 hours.2. Alkaline nutrient agar plates are streaked and incubated overnight.3. Transparent colonies are tested for agglutination with anti-cholera O serum.4. Vibrio cholerae are further identified by slide agglutination tests using anti-O group 1 antiserum and by biochemical reactions.Treatment:The main treatment for cholera is to replace the fluids that you have lost through diarrhea. Your body will then usually fight off the infection by itself. You should drink enough fluids to replace those you have lost.Infection  can be adequately treated by administering oral rehydration salts to replace the loss of fluids and salts. In severely dehydrated persons it should be given as Intravenous. In severe cases; an effective antibiotic treatment can reduce the volume and duration of diarrhea and the period of Vibrio excretion.Disclaimer: The following tests, drugs and medications, surgical procedures are in some way related to, or used in the treatment. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care.

0 Comments

Submit a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Cart Preview

10 Reasons to Start High-Intensity Interval Training Right Now

10 Reasons to Start High-Intensity Interval Training Right Now

High-intensity interval training, or HIIT, is a form of interval training, a cardiovascular exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less intense recovery periods until one is too exhausted to continue. This technique doesn’t...

Kale, Cabbage, and Broccoli May Protect Against Bowel Cancer

Kale, Cabbage, and Broccoli May Protect Against Bowel Cancer

A new study finds that in the process of digestion of such green vegetables as kale, cabbage, and broccoli a protein, known as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), is activated that reduces gut inflammation and prevents the colon form of cancer. For the study, a team of...

[WpProQuiz 1]

Featured Products

Exercise May Serve as an Antidepressant

A new study of nearly 18,000 participants found that those with high fitness at middle age were significantly less likely to die from heart disease in later life, even if they were diagnosed with depression. Doctor's Tips: How to Stay Fit While Treating Depression Dr....

read more

Fitness: Warm Ups Can Chill Out the Perfomance

The warm ups are supposed to increase body temperature and blood flow so the muscles and surrounding joints become more responsive and prepared for physical activity. Although there’s a neurological element to warm-ups, most research focuses on the physiological...

read more

How to Choose the Right Sport for You?

We all know that doing sports is very important, both for health and for a beautiful body. But at the moment when we decide to finally take the path, we are faced with the question: what kind of sport is right for me? So, let's start with the fact that a lot of people...

read more