Cholera: Description, Causes and Risk Factors:Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Cholera is an infection of the small intestine. The infection is often mild or without symptoms, but sometimes it can be severe.CholeraTypes: Cholera infantum, pancreatic,  morbus, asiatic, sicca, and typhoid.Cholera has been very rare in industrialized nations for the last 100 years; however, the disease is still common today in other parts of the world, including the Indian subcontinent and sub-Saharan Africa.It is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae). There are more than 100 serotypes of V. cholerae, but there are only two types that affect humans:V. cholerae O1.
  • V. cholerae O139.
Vibrio cholerae is a comma-shaped, curved gram negative rods, which are motile. Vibrio cholerae produces a toxic substance called "enterotoxin" this causes cholera.The bacterium that causes cholera, Vibrio cholerae, has two distinct life cycles — one in the environment and one in humans. This bacteria can lie dormant in water for long periods, and contaminated public wells are frequent sources of large-scale cholera outbreaks.A person may get cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. In an epidemic, the source of the contamination is usually the feces (stool) of an infected person. The disease can spread rapidly in areas with inadequate treatment of sewage and drinking water. Contaminated water supplies are the main source of infection, although raw shellfish, uncooked fruits and vegetables, and other foods also can harbor cholera bacteria.The disease is not likely to spread directly from one person to another; therefore, casual contact with an infected person is not a risk for becoming ill.Symptoms:Symptoms include:Nausea. Diagnosis and Tests:In order to make a  diagnosis, the doctor will ask a number of questions includes:1. Recent history of foods or drinks.2. Recent travel history.3. Current medical conditions.4. Current medicines.If the doctor suspects the disease, he or she will ask for a stool sample for examination.Microscopic Examination:Dark field Microscopic examination of stool sample shows rapidly motile Vibrio bacteria.Cultural Characters:1. Peptone water is inoculated with fresh stool and incubated 8 hours.2. Alkaline nutrient agar plates are streaked and incubated overnight.3. Transparent colonies are tested for agglutination with anti-cholera O serum.4. Vibrio cholerae are further identified by slide agglutination tests using anti-O group 1 antiserum and by biochemical reactions.Treatment:The main treatment for cholera is to replace the fluids that you have lost through diarrhea. Your body will then usually fight off the infection by itself. You should drink enough fluids to replace those you have lost.Infection  can be adequately treated by administering oral rehydration salts to replace the loss of fluids and salts. In severely dehydrated persons it should be given as Intravenous. In severe cases; an effective antibiotic treatment can reduce the volume and duration of diarrhea and the period of Vibrio excretion.Disclaimer: The following tests, drugs and medications, surgical procedures are in some way related to, or used in the treatment. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care.


Submit a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Cart Preview

Being Married May Cut the Risk of Heart Disease and Stroke

Being Married May Cut the Risk of Heart Disease and Stroke

According to a recent analysis of existing studies in the UK, single, divorced and widowed people have higher chances to develop heart disease and stroke. That’s why the authors of the study believe that being married can be another factor that cuts the risk of...

These 10 Things Happen to Your Body When You Overeat

These 10 Things Happen to Your Body When You Overeat

All of us at least once in life overate – you’re appearing at a birthday party with the intention not to eat too much but then something goes completely wrong. Give a look at what’s happening to your body when you overeat. Maybe this will help you to stop eating at...

Quiz about this article

Please answer on few questions to make our service more useful

Featured Products

Spring is Here: Top 6 Outdoor Sports

Good weather is the best reason to do outdoor sports, which will help not only lose weight, but also will strengthen health. Bicycle The sun dries out the local paths, so you can safely sit on your favorite bike and confidently twist the pedals, where the eyes look....

read more

First Aid in Case of Injuries for Sport and Exercise

First aid for injuries consists of simple rules that need to be clearly implemented. If this is a closed injury, you need to immobilize the injured limb, otherwise the person may lose consciousness from a painful shock. If you need to get to the emergency room...

read more