- Continually avoiding situations that have brought on a previous anxiety attack; repeated avoidance may actually increase the chance of a claustrophobic attack and its severity.
- Accelerated heart rate.
- Fear of actual harm or illness.
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) — an approach that involves learning to control the thoughts that occur when confronted with the fear-inducing situation in such a way as to change the reaction.
- Medications - such as tranquillizers and antidepressants. Drugs known as beta blockers may be used to treat the physical symptoms of anxiety, such as a pounding heart.
- Flooding - this is a form of exposure treatment, where the person is exposed to their phobic trigger until the anxiety attack passes. The realization that they have encountered their most dreaded object or situation, and come to no actual harm, can be a powerful form of therapy.
- Counter-conditioning - if the person is far too fearful to attempt flooding, then counter-conditioning can be an option. The person is taught to use specific relaxation and visualization techniques when experiencing phobia-related anxiety. The phobic trigger is slowly introduced, step-by-step, while the person concentrates on attaining physical and mental relaxation. Eventually, they can confront the source of their fear without feeling anxious. This is known as systematic desensitization.
- Modelling - the person watches other people confront the phobic trigger without fear and is encouraged to imitate that confidence.
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