Coccidioidomycosis

Coccidioidomycosis: Description, Causes and Risk Factors:Alternative Name: Posadas disease, coccidioidomycosis California disease, desert rheumatism, San Joaquin valley fever, Arizona valley fever, Valley fever.Types:Primary coccidioidomycosis.
  • Primary extrapulmonary.
  • Disseminated.
  • Secondary.
  • Subclinical.
Incubation period: 1-3 weeks.The estimated numbers of infections per year are above 150,000.Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection that affects numerous species of animals (dogs, horses, cattle, etc) including humans. Coccidioidomycosis is caused by two species of fungi, Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. Coccidioidomycosis results from inhaling the spores (arthroconidia, dimorphic fungus that grows as a mold in the soil) of Coccidioides species. Its species have a complex life cycle. In the soil, they grow as a mold with long filaments that break off into airborne spores when the soil is disturbed by either construction, wind, or digging. Once in the air, the spores of the valley fever fungus are inhaled as dust and they begin growing and replicating in the lungs.Risk Factors:People living in the endemic areas New Mexico, Arizona, California, and Texas have been estimated to have more chances of getting this disease.
  • Males and pregnant females have a higher risk of getting the disease.
  • Any immunosuppressed person has high risk of getting this disease.
  • People who works at the construction sites, archeological sites, have risks of getting this disease.
Symptoms:CoccidioidomycosisCommon symptoms include:Fever. Diagnosis:Accurate diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis is important because there are many diseasespretend to be coccidioidomycosis such as tuberculosis, arbovirus encephalitis, cryptococcosis, etc.Fortunately, a confirmative diagnostic test is easily done by microscopic examination of sputum or a tissue biopsy that show characteristic fungal spherules and endospores of Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii.Treatment:The acute form of it usually goes away without treatment. Your health care provider may recommend bedrest and treatment of flu-like symptoms until your fever disappears.The person with severe coccidioidomycosis treated with antifungal drugs. The drug of choice is usually amphotericin B, fluconazole, Diflucan, itraconazole, Sporanox, ketoconazole Nizoral, triazole, posaconazole can be used. No effective immunization available. Precautionary measures should be taken to avoid infection.Note:The above information is educational purpose. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care.

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