- Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease.
- Interstitial lung disease.
- Obstructive sleep apnea.
- Central sleep apnea.
- Primary pulmonary hypertension.
- Pulmonary vascular disease.
- Secondary pulmonary hypertension.
- Exercise intolerance.
- Shortness of breath.
- Swelling of the feet or ankles.
- Wheezing and coughing.
- Cyanosis (Bluish color the skin).
- Abnormal fluid collection in the abdomen.
- Swollen neck veins.
- Rapid heartbeat.
- Weak pulse.
- Low blood pressure.
- Pulmonary valve stenosis.
- Congestive cardiac failure due to primary cardiological disease.
- Congenital right-sided cardiac impairment.
- Right-sided heart failure due to right-ventricular myocardial infarction.
- Ventricular septal defect.
- Blood test for BNP (brain natriuretic peptide).
- Measurement of blood oxygen by arterial blood gas (ABG).
- Thrombophilia screen if suspected chronic venous thromboembolism (proteins C and S, antithrombin III, Factor V Leiden, anticardiolipin antibodies, homocysteine levels).
- Pulmonary function tests.
- CT scan of the chest.
- Echocardiography or radionuclide imaging is done to evaluate LV and RV function; echocardiography can assess RV systolic pressure but is often technically limited by the lung disorder. Right heart catheterization may be required for confirmation.
- Ventilation and perfusion scan of the lungs (V/Q scan).
- Management of ventricular failure.
- Management of pulmonary hypertension.
- Calcium channel blockers are often used to treat early cases.
- Prostacyclin may be given through injection or breathing in (inhalation).
- Blood thinning (anticoagulant) medications may also be prescribed.
Recent research conducted by scientists at Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine in Suwon, South Korea, and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, U.S., finds that a compound called farnesol, which can be found in such essential oils as citronella,...
A team of scientists at the Max Planck Institute (MPI) for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen (Germany) and the University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) has developed mini-antibodies that efficiently block the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, as well as its dangerous new...
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