- Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease.
- Interstitial lung disease.
- Obstructive sleep apnea.
- Central sleep apnea.
- Primary pulmonary hypertension.
- Pulmonary vascular disease.
- Secondary pulmonary hypertension.
- Exercise intolerance.
- Shortness of breath.
- Swelling of the feet or ankles.
- Wheezing and coughing.
- Cyanosis (Bluish color the skin).
- Abnormal fluid collection in the abdomen.
- Swollen neck veins.
- Rapid heartbeat.
- Weak pulse.
- Low blood pressure.
- Pulmonary valve stenosis.
- Congestive cardiac failure due to primary cardiological disease.
- Congenital right-sided cardiac impairment.
- Right-sided heart failure due to right-ventricular myocardial infarction.
- Ventricular septal defect.
- Blood test for BNP (brain natriuretic peptide).
- Measurement of blood oxygen by arterial blood gas (ABG).
- Thrombophilia screen if suspected chronic venous thromboembolism (proteins C and S, antithrombin III, Factor V Leiden, anticardiolipin antibodies, homocysteine levels).
- Pulmonary function tests.
- CT scan of the chest.
- Echocardiography or radionuclide imaging is done to evaluate LV and RV function; echocardiography can assess RV systolic pressure but is often technically limited by the lung disorder. Right heart catheterization may be required for confirmation.
- Ventilation and perfusion scan of the lungs (V/Q scan).
- Management of ventricular failure.
- Management of pulmonary hypertension.
- Calcium channel blockers are often used to treat early cases.
- Prostacyclin may be given through injection or breathing in (inhalation).
- Blood thinning (anticoagulant) medications may also be prescribed.
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