Description, Causes and Risk Factors:

Alternative Name: Fallen or prolapse bladder, vesicocele.

Cystocele is the name for a hernia-like disorder in women that occurs when the wall between the bladder and the vagina weakens, causing the bladder to drop or sag into the vagina.



    Grade 1: Grade 1 cystocele means when the bladder droops only a short way into the vagina.

  • Grade 2: Grade 2 cystocele means that the bladder has sunk into the vagina far enough to reach the opening of the vagina.

  • Grade 3: Grade 3 cystocele means when the bladder bulges out through the opening of the vagina.

A cystocele may result from muscle straining while giving birth. Other kinds of straining — such as heavy lifting or repeated straining during bowel movements — may also cause the bladder to fall. The hormone estrogen helps keep the muscles around the vagina strong. When women go through menopause — that is, when they stop having menstrual periods — their bodies stop making estrogen, so the muscles around the vagina and bladder may grow weak.

Risk Factors:

    Childbirth: Women who have vaginally delivered bigeminal children have an advanced chance of having prolapse.

  • Aging: Your chance of experiencing prolapse expands as you age because you naturally lose muscle and nerve function as you grow older, causing muscles to turn stretched or weakened. This is peculiarly true after menopause, when estrogen - that improves preserve pelvic muscles strong - decreases.

  • Having a hysterectomy: Having your uterus get rid of may lead to weakness in your pelvic floor.

  • Genetics: Several women are born with weaker combinational tissues in their pelvic areas, making them normally more convincible to a cystocele.

Preventive Measures:

    Don't lift massive objects.

  • Expand the amount of fibre in your diet to cure constipation and straining.

  • Drink between six and eight glasses of water every day. Not drinking enough water makes stools hard, dry and laborious to pass.

  • Execute pelvic floor exercises daily to encourage the muscles advocating the pelvic organs. You may require instruction from your doctor or other health care professional, such as a pelvic floor rehabilitation physiotherapist.

  • If you are postmenopausal, your doctor may advised hormone therapy, normally in the form of local oestrogen preparations such as a cream or a vaginal tablet, to help tone the muscles encouraging the vagina and bladder.


    Inability to completely empty the bladder after going to the toilet.

  • Urination difficulties.

  • Stress incontinence, which means that urine leaks when coughing, sneezing or laughing.

  • Recurring UTIs (urinary tract infections).

  • A sensation of fullness or pressure inside the vagina.

  • A bulging mass felt on the front wall of the vagina.

  • In severe cases, the vagina and the bladder protrude out of the vaginal entrance.


A doctor may be able to diagnose a grade 2 or grade 3 cystocele from a description of symptoms and from physical examination of the vagina.

Cystourethrogram: A voiding cystourethrogram is a test that involves taking x rays of the bladder during urination. This x ray shows the shape of the bladder and lets the doctor see any problems that might block the normal flow of urine. Other tests may be needed to find or rule out problems in other parts of the urinary system.


Mild cases - when there are no symptoms, treatment may be unnecessary. Regular monitoring is needed to make sure the cystocele doesn't worsen. The doctor may advise a few lifestyle changes to prevent the condition getting worse, including doing pelvic floor exercises to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles.

Moderate cases - a pessary is a small ring-like device that's inserted high in the vagina. This helps to keep the bladder in place. Health risks of long-term pessary use include infection and ulceration.

Severe cases - surgery is usually necessary to repair a severe cystocele.

Surgery: The most common procedure for cystocele repair is for the surgeon to make an incision in the wall of the vagina and repair the area to tighten the layers of tissue that separate the organs, creating more support for the bladder. The patient may stay in the hospital for several days and take 4 to 6 weeks to recover fully.

Disclaimer: The above information is educational purpose. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.

DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care.


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