- Low WBC in the circulation is called leukopenia. This type of cytopenia is frequently caused by infections such as malaria, influenza, and tuberculosis. Some forms of cancer, such as leukemia and Hodgkin's lymphoma also present with low WBC count. The most common cause of this form of cytopenia, however, is due to cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
- Low or reduced platelet count is known as thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia is usually caused by other underlying conditions, such as bone marrow cancer and chronic liver disease, which lead to the decreased production of platelets. It may also result from the increased destruction of platelets in the circulation, such as seen in cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and chemotherapy treatment.
- Patients with leukopenia may present with headache, weakness, and fever, and they are more prone to catch infections easily.
- Loss of concentration.
- Pallor (pale skin, nail beds, gums, linings of eyelids).
- Rapid heart rate (tachycardia).
- Shortness of breath (dyspnea).
- Lymphocytes 20-40%.
- Basophils < 1%.
- Monocytes or macrophages 2-8%.
- Neutrophils 55-70%.
- The normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per milliliter of blood.
- Needle biopsy.
- The patient with a low white blood cell count is advised to: avoid contact with people who are ill, monitor closely for signs of infection (e.g., fever), and take antibiotics when appropriate.
- Medication, a colony-stimulating factor (CSF), may be prescribed to speed the development of white blood cells and shorten the period of susceptibility to infection.
- People with an abnormally low platelet count should avoid bruising or breaking the skin, and should carefully brush their teeth. A persistently decreased platelet count may be treated with a transfusion of platelets.
- Immunosuppressive therapy.
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