Dyslexia: Description, Causes and Risk Factors:Alternative Name: Incomplete alexia.Dyslexia is not a disease. It  is a learning disability that affects one's ability to easily process written and/or verbal language. It is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reducedDyslexiareading experience that can impede the growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.Dyslexia is neurologically based and runs in families. Researchers have determined that a gene on the short arm of chromosome #6 is responsible for it. This gene is dominant one, making dyslexia highly heritable. Although it does not affect the body like cancer or muscular dystrophy do, it affects every day life.People with dyslexia have a larger right-hemisphere in their brains that those of normal readers. That may be the one reason people with it often have significant strengths in the areas controlled by the right side of the brain such as artistic, athletic, mechanical ability, vivid imagination, 3D visualization ability, musical talent, creative problem solving skills, and intuitive people skills.Characteristics:Children with this disability see things backwards.
  • All children who reverse b's and d's or p's and q's haveit.
  • If a child does not "mirror write" or reverse letters and numbers, he/she does not have it.
Measures:The way to help a child to read is to force him or her to read at least 20 minutes a day.
  • Dyslexic children will never read well. It is best to teach them to compensate.
  • If you do not teach a dyslexic child to read by age 12, it is too late. They won't be able to learn after age 12.
Symptoms:No two people with dyslexia are exactly alike. No one will have every single symptom, and the symptoms they do have can range from mild-to-severe.Some common signs include:Difficulty acquiring and using oral and written language.
  • Difficulty in phonological awareness, includingsegmenting, blending and manipulating sounds in words.
  • Difficulty mastering the alphabetic principle and basicdecoding skills (mapping sounds to letters).
  • Lack ofreading fluency.
  • Delayed speech.
  • Difficulty staying organized.
  • Difficulty acquiring age appropriate sight wordrecognition skills.
  • Difficulty learning to spell accurately.
  • People  often have poor nearly illegible handwriting.
  • Most  children and adults have difficulties with many aspects of directionality.
  • Some people with it also have attention deficit disorder (ADD) and light sensitivity.
Diagnosis:Dyslexia is difficult to diagnose. A psychologist or other health professional does a series of tests for diagnosis. The tests determine the child's functional reading level and compares it to reading potential, which is evaluated by an intelligence test.Tests include:Reading fluency (both accuracy and rate) for text passages.
  • Reading comprehension.
  • Spelling.
  • Written Expression
  • Single word decoding (accuracy and speed).
  • Phonemic word attack skills for nonsense words.
  • Oral Language.
  • Vocabulary.
  • Memory.
Treatment:While there is currently no cure for dyslexia, there are a range of specialist interventions and treatments that can help children with dyslexia with their reading and writing abilities. The amount and type of intervention that they will need will depend on the severity of their condition.It is a language processing problem, so teaching language processing skills is the most important part of treatment. A child or teen with dyslexia usually needs to work with a specially trained teacher, tutor, or reading specialist to learn how to read and spell better. The best type of help teaches awareness of speech sounds in words and letter-sound correspondences (called phonics). The teacher or tutor should use special learning and practice activities for dyslexia.Emotional support for people with dyslexia is very important. They often get frustrated and get anger because they can't seem to keep up with other students.Note:The above information is educational purpose. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care.


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