Epizootic hemorrhagic disease

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease: Description, Causes and Risk Factors:Abbreviation: EHD.Epizootic hemorrhagic diseaseEpizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) is a hemorrhagic disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by an infection of a virus from the genus OrbivirusIt is an infectious, and sometimes fatal, virus that is characterized by extensive hemorrhages, and is found throughout the United States. Large-scale outbreaks in wild ruminants affect livestock and the production industry. EHD has been found in some domestic ruminants and many species of deer including white-tailed deer, mule deer, and pronghorn antelope. Seropositive black-tailed deer, fallow deer, red deer, wapiti, and roe deer have also been found, which essentially means that they were exposed to the disease at some time in the past, but may not be involved in transmission. Outbreaks of EHD have been reported in cattle, although it is rare for them to develop disease or die. Sheep may develop clinical signs; however, this is also rare. EHD is often called bluetongue, but this is incorrect. Bluetongue virus is closely related to EHD, and has similar clinical signs, but it is a different disease. Bluetongue is a serious disease in cattle, as well as other ruminants, and can have a significant effect on international trade. Testing at animal health laboratories is necessary to distinguish between the viruses that cause bluetongue and EHD.Hemorrhagic: disease is the most important viral disease of white-tailed deer in the US, and outbreaks occur every year in the Southeast. The disease is caused by related Reoviridae (A family of double-stranded RNA viruses, some of which (Reovirus) previously were included with ECHO viruses, and others (Orbivirus), with arboviruses. Virions are 60-80 nm in diameter, usually naked, and ether-resistant; genomes contain double-stranded, segmented RNA (MW 10-16)The distribution of EHD depends greatly on the distribution and abundance of the biting midge, the level of existing immunity in deer, and the genetic variations in susceptibility. EHD is found in North America, Australia, Asia, and Africa.

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