- Muscular layer that comprises the orbicularis oculi muscle, which is responsible for the closing of the lids.
- Tarsal plate which is a tough collagenous layer that houses meibomian gland.
- Tarsal conjunctiva.
- Innervations: Majorly by ophthalmic and maxillary branch and trigeminal nerve.
- Blood supply: Majorly by ophthalmic and lacrimal artery.
- Spread the tear film over the conjunctiva and cornea with each blink.
- Contain the meibomian oil gland, which provide the lipid component of the tear film.
- Prevent drying of the eyes.
- Contain the puncta through which the tears flow into the lacrimal drainage system.
- Dermatochalasis: A congenital or acquired condition characterized by deficient elastic fibers of the skin, which may hang in folds; vascular anomalies may be present; inheritance is either autosomal dominant or recessive, the latter sometimes in association with pulmonary emphysema and diverticula of the alimentary tract or bladder. The dominant form is caused by mutation in the elastin gene (ELN) on 7q. There is also an X-linked form that is due to mutation in the Menkes gene (MNK), encoding copper-transporting ATPase on Xq. Risk factors may include trauma, chronic dermatitis, thyroid eye disease, chronic renal insufficiency, amyloidosis.
- Eyelid edema: Eyelid disorder edema is a condition where the eyelids contain excessive fluid. Eyelid edema is most often caused by allergic reactions, for example, allergies to eye makeup, eye drops or other drugs, or plant allergens such as pollen. Symptoms may include swelling, itching, redness, or pain.
- Stye: A stye is an infection of one of the three types of eyelid glands near the lid margins, at the base of the lashes. Styes are usually caused by bacterial staphylococcal infections. The symptoms are pain and inflammation in one or more localized regions near the eyelid margin.
- Chalazion: A chalazion is an enlargement of a meibomian gland (an oil-producing gland in the eyelid), usually not associated with an infectious agent. More likely, the gland opening is clogged. Initially, a chalazion may resemble a stye, but it usually grows larger. A chalazion may also be located in the middle of the lid and be internal. A chalazion is caused by a blockage in the outflow duct of a meibomian gland. Symptoms are inflammation and swelling in the form of a round lump in the lid that may be painful.
- Blepharitis: Blepharitis is the inflammation of the eyelid margins, often with scales and crust. It can lead to eyelash loss, chalazia, styes, ectropion, corneal damage, excessive tearing, and chronic conjunctivitis. Some cases of blepharitis are caused by bacterial infection and some by head lice, but in some cases, the cause is unclear. It may also be caused by an overproduction of oil by the meibomian glands. Blepharitis can be a chronic condition that begins in early childhood and can last throughout life. Symptoms can include itching, burning, a feeling that something is in the eye, inflammation, and scales or matted, hard crusts surrounding the eyelashes.
- Entropion and ectropion: Entropion is a condition where the eyelid disorder margin (usually the lower one) is turned inward; the eyelashes touch the eye and irritate the cornea. Ectropion is a condition where one or both eyelid margins turn outward, exposing both the conjunctiva that covers the eye and the conjunctiva that lines the eyelid. Entropion and ectropion are usually results from aging, but sometimes can be due to a congenital defect, a spastic eyelid muscle, or a scar on the inside of the lid that could be from surgery, injury, or disease. It is accompanied by excessive tearing, redness, and discomfort. Ectropion can also be the result of allergies.
- Eyelid Tumors: Tumors found on the Eyelid disorder are caused by the same conditions that cause these tumors elsewhere on the body. They are usually painless and may or may not be pigmented.
- Molluscum contagiosum: It is a viral infection of the skin or the mucous membranes, caused by pox virus. It causes eye irritation, follicular conjunctivitis.
- Xanthelasma: Lid containing bilateral lesions. It is usually associated with hyperlipidemia.
- The most common treatment for dermatochalasis is a surgical procedure known as a blepharoplasty.
- The best treatment for allergic eyelid disorder edema is to find and remove the substance causing the allergy. When that is not possible, as in the case of plant allergens, cold compresses and immunosuppressive drugs such as corticosteroid creams are helpful. However, steroids can cause cataracts and increase intraocular pressure and patients must be very careful not to get the cream in their eyes. This should not be done unless under a doctor's care.
- Most styes will drain on their own though this may be accelerated with a hot or warm compress. Styes typically resolve within one week with treatment.
- Chalazions may be treated with any one or a combination of antibiotic or steroid drops or injections; warm compresses for 5 to 10 minutes, 3 or 4 times a day; gentle massage to express the glandular secretions; or surgical drainage.
- Blepharitis can be controlled by a lifelong commitment to good eyelid hygiene. In certain situations, medications or other treatment options may be considered.
- Both entropion and ectropion can be surgically corrected. Prior to surgery, the lower lid of entropion can be taped down to keep the lashes off the eye, and both can be treated with lubricating drops to keep the cornea moist.
- Cancerous tumors should be removed upon discovery, and noncancerous tumors should be removed before they become big enough to interfere with vision or eyelid function. Eyelid tumors require special consideration because of their sensitive location.
- To avoid these problems, it is also important to refrain from touching and rubbing the eyes and eyelids, especially with hands that have not just been washed.
- Blepharitis is associated with dandruff, which is caused by a kind of bacteria that is one of the causes of blepharitis. Controlling dandruff by washing the hair, scalp, and eyebrows with shampoo containing selenium sulfide to kill the bacteria helps control the blepharitis. When using anything near the eyes, it is important to read the label or consult with a doctor first.
- Avoiding allergens helps prevent allergic eyelid disorder edema. Staying inside as much as possible when pollen counts are high and eliminating the use of, or at least removing eye makeup thoroughly, or using hypo-allergenic makeup may help if the person is sensitive to those substances.
- Sunscreen, UV-blocking sunglasses, and wide brimmed hats can help prevent eyelid tumors.
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