- Other recognised causes of Fanconi's syndrome are Wilson's disease (a genetically inherited condition of copper metabolism), Lowe Syndrome, Tyrosinemia (Type I), galactosemia, glycogen storage diseases, and fructose intolerance.
- Two forms, Dent's disease and Lowe syndrome, are X linked.
- Lead poisoning also leads to Fanconi Syndrome.
- Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance can also cause the condition.
- Kidney transplant.
- Light chain deposition disease.
- Multiple myeloma.
- Primary amyloidosis.
- Hypophosphatemic rickets (in children) and osteomalacia (in adults).
- Growth failure.
- Treat the underlying cause if present. Alkali and potassium for renal tubular acidosis (RTA), phosphate and calcitriol for phosphate wasting.
- Dehydration due to polyuria: prevent by ensuring adequate fluid intake; episodes of dehydration require either oral or intravenous fluid replacement.
- Metabolic acidosis due to the loss of bicarbonate: corrected by the administration of alkali - usually sodium bicarbonate.
- Thiazide diuretic: may be necessary to avoid volume expansion, which increases the excretion of bicarbonate by lowering the renal threshold. However, the diuretic increases potassium loss.
- Correction of metabolic acidosis is insufficient to treat bone disease, and phosphate and vitamin D supplementation is also required.
- Phosphate supplements.
- Vitamin D, given as 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or 1a-hydroxyvitamin D3, as liver and/or renal hydroxylation may be impaired in patients with Fanconi's syndrome.
- Renal losses of glucose, amino acids, and uric acid are not usually symptomatic and do not require replacement.
- Effective management of any underlying metabolic disorder, e.g. galactosaemia, tyrosinemia.
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