- Excessive maternal weight gain and/or prepregnancy weight also play the some role in macrosomia by providing excessive growth in selected cases. Whether this is also due to undiagnosed glucose intolerance in these individuals remains to be studied.
- Genetic factors also contribute to fetal size. Taller and heavier parents typically produce larger offspring.
- Maternal diabetes. If you had diabetes before pregnancy (pre-gestational diabetes) or develop diabetes during pregnancy (gestational diabetes), fetal macrosomia is more likely. If your diabetes is poorly controlled, your baby is likely to have larger shoulders and greater amounts of body fat than would a baby whose mother doesn't have diabetes.
- A history of fetal macrosomia. If you've previously given birth to a baby diagnosed with fetal macrosomia, you're at increased risk of having another baby who has the condition. Also, if you weighed more than 8 pounds, 13 ounces at birth, you're more likely to have a large baby.
- Maternal obesity. Fetal macrosomia is more likely if you're obese.
- Excessive weight gain during pregnancy. Gaining too much weight during pregnancy increases the risk of fetal macrosomia.
- Previous pregnancies. The risk of fetal macrosomia increases with each pregnancy. Up to the fifth pregnancy, the average birth weight for each successive pregnancy typically increases by up to about 4 ounces (120 grams).
- You're having a boy. Male infants typically weigh slightly more than female infants. Most babies who weigh more than 9 pounds, 15 ounces (4,500 grams) are male.
- Overdue pregnancy. If your pregnancy continues by more than two weeks past your due date, your baby is at increased risk of fetal macrosomia.
- Excessive amniotic fluid (polyhydramnios). Too much amniotic fluid — the fluid that surrounds and protects a baby during pregnancy — might be a sign that your baby is larger than average. The amount of amniotic fluid reflects your baby's urine output, and a larger baby produces more urine. Some conditions that increase a baby's size might also increase his or her urine output.
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