Fluoride deficiency is a condition of the lack amount of fluoride in the body.
Fluoride is a microelement found in trace amounts in the organism. In the body, fluoride comprises the teeth and bones (95% of its total amount) in the form of calcium fluoride. Fluoride incorporates into the teeth and forms and hardens the tooth’ enamels, creates the acid resistance and resistance to bacteria of the dental cavity. Some researchers suggest that fluoride prevents osteoporosis in women in the postmenopausal period.
Fluoride is the most bioavailable form of fluorine, this form of fluorine is seen in the tea, which makes it essential as a source or fluoride. About fifty percent of fluoride is excreted by the kidneys within 24 hours after the absorption.
Causes and risk factors
Fluoride deficiency may be caused by the insufficient amount of the fluoride in the diet. However, consumption of fluoride in greater amounts may be toxic and lead skeletal fluorosis (consumption of 20-80 mg/day).
See also: Silicon deficiency
Recommended daily intake and the sources
According to The Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine the following dietary intake of fluoride is required:
- Infants – 0.01 milligrams per day (0-6 months), 0.5 mg/day (7-12 months);
- Children from 0.7 mg/day up to 2.0 mg/day depending on the age;
- Adolescents and adults: males – 3.0 mg/day – 4.0 mg/day; females over 14 years – 3.0 mg/day;
Fluoride is found in:
- Black tea (brewed);
- Raisins, seedless;
- Table wine;
- Municipal fluoridated tap-water;
- Baked potatoes, Russet;
- Apples and grapefruit;
Fluoride deficiency causes the following symptoms:
- Badly formed or weak teeth;
- Dental caries (tooth decay);
- Teeth plaques;
- Brittle or weak bones;
- Predisposition to bone fractures;
- Hip fractures in elderly;
Sodium fluoride or sodium monofluorophosphate (fluoride-containing compounds) are administered topically and systemically to prevent the tooth decay. These substances may be used to fluoridate water and in the production of oral hygiene products.
Water fluoridation is the controlled addition of fluoride to a public water supply in order to avoid fluoride deficiency condition. Fluoridated water has fluoride at a level effective for preventing tooth decay and still remain safe. The water may be fluoridated naturally or by adding fluoride artificially.