Gianotti-Crosti syndrome

Gianotti-Crosti syndrome: Description, Causes and Risk Factors:Gianotti-Crosti syndromeGianotti-Crosti syndrome (GCS), also known as Papular acrodermatitis of childhood, acrodermatitis papulosa infantum, and infantile papular acrodermatitis, is a symmetric papular eruption of the skin in response to viral or bacterial infection. This condition is harmless and self-limiting which usually resolves in about 3-5 weeks.Gianotti-Crosti syndrome usually occurs in children between the ages of 3 months to 15 years and is more commonly seen in children younger then 4 years. In children, both male and female are equally affected. However, in adult population it tends to occur more in females then male.Although previous studies have associated with viral infection specifically hepatitis B virus, recent advance in research have associated its involvement with several viral and bacterial infection.Causes associated with viral infection:Epstein-Barr virus.
  • Hepatitis A, B and C.
  • Cytomegalovirus.
  • Coxsackievirus.
  • Rotavirus.
  • Parainfluenza virus.
  • Human herpesvirus 6.
  • Rubella virus.
  • Adenovirus.
  • Echovirus.
  • Molluscum contagiosum virus.
  • Enterovirus.
  • Human immunodeficiency virus.
  • Respiratory syscytial virus.
Causes associated with bacterial infections:Meningococcemia.
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
  • Group A b-hemolytic streptococci.
  • Borrelia burgdorferi.
  • Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare.
  • Bartonella henselae.
Causes associated with immunizations:Hepatitis A and B.
  • Smallpox.
  • Polio.
  • Diphtheria.
  • Influenza.
  • Measles.
  • Pertussis.
Symptoms:Gianotti-Crosti syndrome mainly affects infants and young children. It is generally recognized as a papular or papulovesicular skin rash occurring mainly on the face and distal aspects of the four limbs. The presence of less florid truncal lesions does not exclude the diagnosis. Lymphadenopathy and hepatomegaly are sometimes noted. Raised liver transmainases with no rise in conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin are sometimes detectable, although the absence of such does not exclude the diagnosis. Spontaneous disappearance of the rash usually occurs after 15-60 days.The positive clinical features are:Monomorphous, flat-topped, pink-brown papules or papulovesicles 1-10mm in diameter.
  • At least three of the following four sites involved - (1) cheeks, (2) buttocks, (3) extensor surfaces of forearms, and (4) extensor surfaces of legs.
  • Being symmetrical.
  • Lasting for at least ten days.
The negative clinical features are:Extensive truncal lesions.
  • Scaly lesions.
Diagnosis:The differential diagnoses are: acrodermatitis enteropathica, erythema infectiosum, erythema multiforme, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, Henoch-Sch

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