Glycosuria

Glycosuria: Description, Causes and Risk Factors: GlycosuriaGlycosuria, meaning glucose in the urine, is a condition that commonly occurs during pregnancy. During this time, the body's ability to filter glucose may be impaired, causing excess glucose from the blood to spill into the urine. The kidneys have a renal threshold for glucose. This is the amount of glucose in the blood that the kidneys are capable of reabsorbing. When blood glucose levels exceed the renal threshold, excess glucose is not reabsorbed and is excreted in the urine in detectable amount. Renal threshold for glucose normally ranges between 160 to 190 mg/dL. There are two basic causes of glycosuria. One is that the level of blood glucose is so high that the renal tubules are unable to reabsorb all that is presented. The other is a failure of the tubules to reabsorb all glucose at a level where this should be possible. The latter is called renal glycosuria. Risk Factors:
  • Very rapid gastric emptying, as in dumping syndrome after surgery for peptic ulcers, can raise blood glucose above the threshold.
  • Stress hormones elevate blood glucose and in the severely ill patient they may elevate glucose beyond the renal threshold.
  • Hyperalimentation may also raise the blood glucose above the renal threshold.
Symptoms: The most common symptoms of glycosuria are abdominal pain, thirst, and high blood sugar Diagnosis: Urine testing done by your doctor or Obstetrician at any time during the pregnancy will detect the level of glucose in your urine. It is currently recommended that every pregnant woman have a blood glucose screening test for gestational diabetes at 24 - 28 weeks gestation. No prior preparation is required for either test. If the glucose level becomes too high, further testing, called a glucose challenge test or oral glucose tolerance test may be done. Glucose Challenge Test - Your blood glucose levels are taken one hour after a 50-gram glucose drink. A number greater than 140 mg/dL is abnormal. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test - This test is done when your glucose challenge test results are too high. A 100-gram glucose drink is consumed. Blood glucose levels are taken prior to this, at one hour after, two hours after, and three hours after the glucose load. Your doctor can let you know the values expected. Treatment: Glycosuria being only a symptom, treatment must be directed towards its underlying cause; the principles of treatment being understood, the detailed management will depend upon the special features of each individual case. NOTE: The above information is educational purpose. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care.  

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