- Other anemias: Feto-maternal hemorrhage, twin-twin transfusion (donor).
- Chromosomal abnormalities: Trisomy 21, 18, Turner syndrome.
- Infections: Viral (Parvovirus B19, Herpes, CMV), toxoplasmosis, syphilis, Chagas disease.
- Genetic metabolic disease: Gaucher disease, mucopolysaccharidosis, Nieman-Pick disease, neonatal hemochromatosis.
- Cardiac: Fetal arrhythmias, premature closure of foramen ovale, hypoplastic left heart, hypoplastic right heart, Ebstein's anomaly of tricuspid valve, cardiomyopathy, cardiac tumors, premature closure of ductus arteriosus, other structural anomalies.
- Vascular malformations: Chorioangioma (placenta, umbilical vessels), liver hemangioma, cerebral A-V malformation, sacrococcygeal teratoma, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome.
- Vascular accidents: Intracranial hemorrhage, thrombosis of renal veins, IVC, twin-twin transfusion (recipient).
- Lymphatic malformations: Pulmonary lymphangiectasia, cystic hygroma, multiple pterygium Syndrome, Noonan syndrome.
- Chest masses: Cystic adenomatoid malformation, diaphragmatic hernia, pulmonary sequestration, intrathoracic mass.
- Skeletal conditions: Asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy, osteogenesis imperfecta, chondrodysplasia.
- Fetal Hypomobility: Arthrogryposis, Neu-Laxova syndrome, Pena-Shokier syndrome. myotonic dystrophy.
- CNS anomalies: Absent corpus callosum, encephalocele, holoprosencephaly.
- Other: Bowel obstruction with perforation (meconium peritonitis, volvulus), infant of diabetic mother, Prune belly syndrome, congenital Nephrosis, maternal indomethacin therapy.
- More severe forms may cause: Breathing problems, bruising or purplish bruise-like spots on the skin, heart failure, severe anemia, severe jaundice, total body swelling.
- Early cesarean delivery if condition gets worse.
- Intrauterine fetal blood transfusion.
- Treatment of asphyxia, which is common in these infants.
- Diagnosis of cause of hydrops, both for management of the patient and counseling of the parents regarding risk of recurrence in future pregnancies. This may require extensive diagnostic interventions, including careful post-mortem examination, skin sample for karyotyping and full body radiographs in those who do not survive.
- Treatment of underlying cause.
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