Hyperglobulinemia

Hyperglobulinemia: Definition, Description, Causes and Risk Factors:Hyperglobulinemia means an abnormally high concentration of globulins in the circulating blood plasma.Blood is composed of several factors, including red and white blood cells, platelets and plasma. The plasma, which accounts for more than half the volume of blood, is the water component and contains both electrolytes and soluble proteins. Many of the plasma proteins are synthesized in the liver and each one has a different function:Albumins: It is the most abundant protein. It is synthesized by the liver. Because they are so abundant they contribute to the osmotic pressure of the blood and play an important role in maintaining fluid balance between blood and interstitial fluid. If the osmotic pressure of the blood decreases fluids move from the blood into the interstitial spaces, which results in edema. This also decreases blood volume and in severe cases may reduce blood pressure. When blood osmotic pressure increases, fluid moves from the interstitial spaces into the blood and increased the blood volume. This increases pressure and decreases the amount of the water available to the cells.
  • Globulins: There are three types of globulins, alpha, beta, and gamma. Alpha and beta globulins are produced by the liver and function in transporting lipids and fat soluble vitamins in the blood. Gamma globulins are the antibodies that function in immunity.
  • Fibrinogen: This makes up the smallest fraction of the plasma proteins. It is produced in the liver and function in the blood clotting. This type of plasma proteins are the largest of the molecules.
High globulin is found in many types of inflammation, certain infections and in chronic liver disease.If the patient exhibits an increased globulin level, you may consider:Infection. Some examples of globulins may include:Antihemophilic globulin.
  • Antihemophilic globulin A.
  • Antihemophilic globulin B.
  • Antihuman globulin.
  • Antilymphocyte globulin.
  • Chickenpox immune globulin (human).
  • Corticosteroid-binding globulin.
  • Gonadal steroid-binding globulin.
  • Human gamma globulin.
  • Immune serum globulin.
  • Measles immune globulin (human).
  • Pertussis immune globulin.
  • Plasma accelerator globulin.
  • Poliomyelitis immune globulin (human).
  • Rabies immune globulin (human).
  • Rho(d) immune globulin.
  • Serum accelerator globulin.
  • Sex hormone-binding globulin.
  • Sex steroid-binding globulin.
  • Specific immune globulin (human).
  • Testosterone-estrogen-binding globulin.
  • Tetanus immune globulin.
  • Thyroxine-binding globulin.
  • Zoster immune globulin.
Types of globulins:Alpha-1 globulins (-1 globulins): The major protein associated with alpha-1 globulins is alpha-1 antitrypsin. Elevated levels may indicate an acute inflammatory disorder, while decreased levels may be indicative of Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a hereditary disease that is associated with chronic lung and liver disorders.Alpha-2 globulins (-2 globulins): Alpha-2 globulins are primarily composed of two proteins, macroglobulin and haptoglobulin. Increased levels of macroglobulin are used as a diagnostic factor in nephrotic syndrome, which describes a condition of the kidneys where proteins are leaked from the blood into the urine. Macroglobulin has also been indicated in Alzheimer's disease. Detection of low levels of haptoglobulin, among other tests, is used in the diagnosis of hemolytic anemia, a condition that causes the destruction of red blood cells.Hyperglobulinemia MedigooBeta globulins (-globulins): There are several types of beta globulins, but they all are primarily composed of transferrin (A globulin in blood plasma that carries iron). Transferrin tightly binds iron in the blood and transports it to cells with a transferrin receptor, where the iron molecule is then imported into the cell. Elevated levels of transferrin are often indicative of someone suffering from iron-deficient anemia. Conversely, decreased transferrin levels are associated with iron overload, or hemochromatosis. Transferrin is also used as a diagnostic for liver disease and protein malnutrition.Gamma globulins (-globulins): Gamma globulins comprise the largest component of all the plasma globulin proteins. Gamma globulins are most commonly defined as immunoglobulins, or antibodies. Antibodies are produced by the mature B-cells of the immune system and are utilized by the body's defense mechanism against foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses. There are five main classes of antibodies that include IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD and IgE. Decreased levels of gamma globulins are indicative of an immune deficiency. Elevated levels may indicate blood cancers like Multiple Myeloma and certain lymphomas.

Hyperglobulinemia Symptoms:

Symptoms may include:
  • Fatigue and weakness.
  • Dizziness and confusion.
  • Muscle numbness or tingling.
  • Swelling of the lymph nodes, liver, or spleen.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Weight loss.
  • Low grade or mild fever.
  • Abnormal bleeding.
  • Headaches.
  • Problems with vision.
  • Kidney problems.
  • Infections.
Hyperglobulinemia Diagnosis:Identifying globulins can help with the diagnosis of certain diseases related with globulins e.g. gammopathy, hypogammaglobulinemia, Bruton agammaglobulinemia, dysgammaglobulinemia, globulinuria, hypergammaglobulinemia, hyperglobulinemic purpura, Waldenstr

5 Comments

  1. Hesham reyad

    What is the effect of hyperglobinemia on the imaging studies of the liver

    Reply
    • editor-m

      If you want to find out what tests of liver will help you to diagnose hyperglobulinemia, it could be electrophoresis, but in any case consult your doctor.

      Reply
  2. Robert Andrews

    Does anybody know the effectiveness of CBD oil on hyperglobulinemia?

    Reply
  3. John rogers

    Has anyone experienced hyperglobulinemia or blood clots after an injection of gadalinium,

    Reply
    • maisteri

      In extremely rare cases administration of gadolinium may cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis which is associated with the formation of blood clots, although hyperglobulinemia is not typical for this disease.

      Reply

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