Leukocoria: Description, Causes and Risk Factors:Leukocoria literally means "white pupil." It occurs when the pupil (the circular orifice in the center of the iris, through which the light rays enter the eye.) is white rather than the usual black.LeukocoriaIn more obvious cases the pupil may appear white on casual observation. In other situations the pupil may appear white only in certain circumstances such as when the pupil becomes larger in a darkened room. Sometimes leukocoria is detected from photographs when one pupil has an abnormal or "white reflex" compared to the other eye having a normal "red reflex."Many conditions cause leukocoria including cataract, retinal detachment, retinopathy of prematurity, retinal malformation, intraocular infection endophthalmitis), retinal vascular abnormality, and retinoblastoma (intraocular tumor).Risk Factors:Cataract.
  • Retinoblastoma.
  • Toxocariasis.
  • Coats disease.
  • ROP (retinopathy of prematurity).
  • PHPV (persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous).
  • Retinal detachment.
  • Coloboma.
  • Retinal dysplasia.
  • Norries disease.
Symptoms:Leukocoria may be a common sign in various ocularconditions - such as cataract, retinoblastoma, andretinal and vitreous diseases - and may be characterizedby a whitish pupillary reflex that differs from the normal red ocular reflex.The red ocular reflex appears when a light beamis focused on the eye through the pupil; the light ispartly absorbed and partly reflected by the retina backthrough the pupil, appearing as a reddish-orange reflexcharacterizing the normal color of the retina and thechoroid.An early diagnosis is possible with the red reflex test,which reduces the morbidity and possibly the mortalityof various ocular conditions.Diagnosis:Anophthalmologist can evaluate a patient who appears to have this symptom, checking for a red reflex and collecting other information about the visual appearance of the eye in the process. All of this information is diagnostically useful. It is very important to receive a thorough workup for leukocoria, as this symptom is usually associated with diseases known to cause vision loss or difficulties with visual perception. Early diagnosis and treatment can provide people with a greater chance of preserving their vision.Treatment:Treatments vary, depending on what condition the patient appears to have. Surgery, chemotherapy, medications, and radiation are all things that may be recommended to the patient. People who want a second opinion may want to consider working with a physician who specializes in treatment of a given condition to make sure they have access to the most recent information on diagnosis and treatment of the condition. Doctors who treat retinoblastoma regularly, for example, tend to have better treatment options, as well as improved patient outcomes.NOTE: The above information is for processing purpose. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care.


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