Nephritis


Nephritis

Description, Causes and Risk Factors:

Nephritis referst to inflammation of the kidneys.

ICD-9-CM: 583.9.

Terminology related with nephritis.

Acute interstitial nephritis, acute nephritis, analgesic nephritis, anti-basement membrane nephritis, anti-kidney serum nephritis, chronic nephritis, focal nephritis, glomerular nephritis, hemorrhagic nephritis, hereditary nephritis, immune complex nephritis, interstitial nephritis, serum nephritis, subacute nephritis, suppurative nephritis, syphilitic nephritis, transfusion nephritis, tuberculous nephritis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, uranium nephritis, lupus nephritis, mesangial nephritis, nephritis gravidarum, salt-losing nephritis, scarlatinal nephritis.

Nephritis is inflammation of the kidneys. It may be caused by a bacterial infection of the kidneys (pyelonephritis) or exposure to a toxin. However, it more commonly develops from an abnormal immune reaction, which can occur in two ways:

    An antibody can attack either the kidney itself or a substance that stimulates an immune reaction (antigen) attached to kidney cells.

  1. An antigen and antibody can combine somewhere else in the body, forming an immune complex, and then attach to cells in the kidney.

Some types of nephritis involve infiltration of kidney tissues by white blood cells and deposits of antibodies. In other types of nephritis, inflammation may consist of tissue swelling or scarring without white blood cells or antibodies. Nephritis can occur anywhere in the kidneys.

The causes of nephritis (or acute nephritic syndrome as the collection of symptoms is sometimes called) tend to be different in adults and children.

One of the commonest, especially in children, is after infection with the streptococcus bacteria, which leads to an immune reaction that damages the filtering units of the kidney known as the glomeruli. This condition is called post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis.

Other causes seen more frequently in children than adults include Henoch-Sch

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