Optic disk swelling
Optic disk swelling
Description, Causes and Risk Factors:
The optic disk is shaped like a doughnut with a pink neuroretinal rim and a central white depression called the physiologic cup. Check out the color of the neuroretinal rim, which carries the axons of the retinal ganglion cells. It should be orange-pink. If its axons die, the rim will turn white. Inflammation, infarction, and compression are common causes.
Optic disk swelling can be caused by a number of conditions. Common causes include increased intracranial pressure (ICP) and optic nerve inflammation and infarction. Compression and toxins may also cause optic disk swelling.
The primary cause of optic disk swelling is slowed cellular conduction along the optic nerve, which occurs when swelling of the prelaminar axons causes elevation and expansion of the optic nerve head. This swelling is caused by an accumulation of intracellular fluids and metabolic by-products that dam up and eventually results in swelling of the prelaminar axons. When swelling occurs, the normally distinct border of the optic disk becomes blurred as swollen axons become elevated and less transparent. The pressure caused by this swelling can result in circumferential retinal microfolds (Paton's lines) and choroidal folds.
Other causes and risk factors:
Pan or posterior uveitis.
Compressive optic neuropathy (e.g. thyroid eye disease).
Irvine-Gass syndrome (macular edema).
Infiltration or inflammation (e.g. sarcoid, leukemia).
Carbon dioxide retention.
Following are some of the symptoms associated with optic disk swelling:
Dim, dull vision.
Decreased or blurred vision in one or both the eyes.
Reduced color perception.
Decreased peripheral vision.
Central blind spot or decrease in central vision.
Tender, sore eye.
Assessment of patients with swollen diskmay includes morphologic evaluation of optic disk and retinal nerve ?ber layer,visual acuitytest,perimetryand visual electrophysiology, and radiologic studies such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
You must obtain a CT or MRI scan of the brain within 24 hours of any tentative diagnosis of papilledema (i.e., when you suspect that increased intracranial pressure is the cause of the disk edema).
Management of optic disk swelling begins with a correct diagnosis. Most importantly, it is crucial to distinguish between papilledema and the many other forms of optic disk swelling, including "masqueraders" such as buried optic disk drusen.
Mostly, people recover normal vision without undergoing any treatment. For some people who have significant vision loss, high doses of corticosteroids are given intravenously to hasten visual recovery. Optic disk also improves characteristically over a period of some days to weeks. Some patients may take months to recover completely.
Reports suggest that intravenous steroid medication treatment for patients suffering from optic neuritis can reduce the risk of multiple sclerosis later on.
Nutrients such as serraflazyme, MSM eye drops, fish oil and other nutrients may help in recovery of optic disk swelling and maintain good vision. Some research indicates that use of microcurrent stimulation helps to preserve vision.
NOTE: The above information is educational purpose. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care.
A team of scientists from the Swinburne University of Technology in Australia finds that cinnamon may help in treating resistant bacterial infections breaking up their biofilms — sticky layers that are usually responsible for persistent infections that cannot be...
According to a new study, performed by the French scientists, people who eat a lot of fruit and vegetables have up to 30% less risk to experience the severe symptoms of asthma. For their research, a team of scientists studied approximately 35,000 people comparing...
We all know that doing sports is very important, both for health and for a beautiful body. But at the moment when we decide to finally take the path of correction, we are faced with the question: what kind of sport is right for me? So, let's start with the fact that a...read more
Pranayama is not just a complex of breathing exercises. It is a complex process, during which a person receives vital energy - prana from the air. Literally pranayama is translated as "stopping breathing". Hence the main goal of the whole breathing gymnastics is to be...read more
Experts often advise people as suitable trainings to climb stairs, rather than use the elevator. And here are 6 reasons why we should do this regularly. Classes on the treadmill or with the ellipsoid simulator in daily mode seem too boring. They can be replaced by a...read more