Organic brain syndrome
Organic brain syndrome
Description, Causes and Risk Factors:
Organic brain syndrome is described as a deficiency in mental function that is due to medical disease that is not a psychiatric illness. The disorder is usually inherited; however, it can be caused from diseases or changes to the body that affects the brain. Originally, the term was created to distinguish physical (termed "organic") causes of mental impairment from psychiatric (termed "functional") disorders, but this division became increasingly difficult to make as the physical correlates of mental problems become more numerous. Thus, the term (which was never well-defined) is now almost officially obsolete in psychiatry, having been removed from DSM-IV, but still occasionally used in practice and in the literature.
Causes and Risk Factors:
1. Brain injury caused by trauma
Bleeding into the brain (intracerebral hemorrhage).
Bleeding into the space around the brain (subarachnoid hemorrhage).
Blood clot inside the skull causing pressure on brain (subdural hematoma).
2. Breathing conditions
Low oxygen in the body (hypoxia).
High carbon dioxide levels in the body (hypercapnia).
3. Cardiovascular disorders
Abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmias).
Brain injury due to high blood pressure (hypertensive brain injury).
Dementia due to many strokes (multi-infarct dementia).
Heart infections (endocarditis, myocarditis).
Transient ischemic attack (TIA).
4. Degenerative disorders
Alzheimer's disease (also called senile dementia, Alzheimer's type).
Diffuse Lewy Body disease.
Normal pressure hydrocephalus.
6. Drug and alcohol-related conditions
Alcohol withdrawal state.
Intoxication from drug or alcohol use.
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (a long-term effect of excessive alcohol consumption or malnutrition).
Withdrawal from drugs (especially sedative-hypnotics and corticosteroids).
Any sudden onset (acute) or long-term (chronic) infection.
Blood poisoning (septicemia).
Brain infection (encephalitis).
Meningitis (infection of the lining of the brain and spinal cord).
Prion infections such as mad cow disease.
7. Other medical disorders
Thyroid disease (high or low).
Vitamin deficiency (B1, B12, or folate).
Acute organic brain syndrome is (by definition) a recently appearing state of mental impairment, as a result of intoxication, drug overdose, infection, pain, and many other physical problems affecting mental status. In medical contexts, "acute" means "of recent onset." As is the case with most acute disease problems, acute organic brain syndrome is often temporary-however this is not guaranteed (a recent-onset problem may continue to be chronic or long term). A more specific medical term for the acute subset of organic brain syndromes is delirium.
Chronic organic brain syndrome is long-term. For example, some forms of chronic drug or alcohol dependence can cause organic brain syndrome due to their long-lasting or permanent toxic effects on brain function. Other common causes of chronic organic brain syndrome sometimes listed are the various types of dementia, which result from permanent brain damage due to strokes, Alzheimer's disease, or other damaging causes which are not reversible.
Someone with an OBS will typically have a rapid onset of delirium. Delirium is always due to an organic cause such as an interruption to the nervous system that is triggered by medications, medical conditions or severe trauma. Symptoms of the disorder may induce a disturbance in sleep patterns, hallucinations, anxiety and may have other medical conditions that increase the symptoms. There is a difficulty in remembering tasks and events. The person will have difficulties concentrating, be fatigued, have hypersensitivity to noise and light, experience restlessness and may have disturbing dreams.
Tests depend on the disorder, but may include:
Head CT scan.
The management of OBS is typically done as an inpatient through a medical facility. The primary goal is to find the possible cause for the person to be experiencing the symptoms of the disorder. It is important that the person have the correct nutrition, fluids and rest in attempts to help them feel safe should they experience hallucinations or have difficulties in mobility. There are a variety of disorders and conditions that mimic the symptoms of the syndrome such as psychosis, depression and neurosis, therefore it is important to see a physician and have the correct testing done to determine the most appropriate treatment.
NOTE: The above information is for processing purpose. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
Sources: Excerpted from various sources.
DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care.
A new study from Brazil suggests that trendy intermittent fasting may be the reason for increasing insulin levels and the amount of abdominal fat. It also may lead to the damage of pancreatic cells. Intermittent fasting diet is a diet when a dieting person has “fast”...
It is well known that our overall health and wellbeing are totally dependable on what we eat. That is why a healthy diet plays a significant role in keeping the body healthy. Day after day, scientists all over the world make new discoveries proving that certain...
Quiz about this article
0 of 2 questions completed
Please answer on few questions to make our service more useful
You have already completed the quiz before. Hence you can not start it again.
Quiz is loading...
You must sign in or sign up to start the quiz.
You have to finish following quiz, to start this quiz:
0 of 2 questions answered correctly
Time has elapsed
You have reached 0 of 0 points, (0)
Question 1 of 2
Was this article useful for you?Correct
Thanks for your feedback!Incorrect
Thanks for your feedback!
Question 2 of 2
What else information about this disease you want to know ?Correct
Thanks for feedback!Incorrect
Thanks for feedback!
Good weather is the best reason to do outdoor sports, which will help not only lose weight, but also will strengthen health. Bicycle The sun dries out the local paths, so you can safely sit on your favorite bike and confidently twist the pedals, where the eyes look....read more
First aid for injuries consists of simple rules that need to be clearly implemented. If this is a closed injury, you need to immobilize the injured limb, otherwise the person may lose consciousness from a painful shock. If you need to get to the emergency room...read more
Many people spontaneously decide starting to do sport, while others weigh all the pros and cons for a log time. But almost all of them make the same mistakes, listening to the advice of non experts. There are 10 anti-tips for those who want to do plan to do some sport...read more