Description, Causes and Risk Factors:
Condition in which the convolutions of the cerebral cortex are abnormally large; there are fewer sulci than normal and in some cases the amount of brain substance is somewhat increased.
Pachygyria is a kind of prenatal developmental disorder which affects a child and his spontaneous mental growth process. Predominantly, the condition is recognized in a child by the bulky convolutions of the cerebral cortex.
Pachygyria is caused by a breakdown in the fetal neuronal migration process due to genetic or possibly environmental influences. The cerebral cortex will typically have only four developed layers. Incomplete neuronal migration during the early fetal brain development is the precursor to lissencephaly. Should neurons follow an abnormal migration during development possible cortical malformations include classical lissencephaly and subcortical band heterotopia with an agyria-pachygyria band spectrum.
However, the problem of pachygyria hardly affects complete brain and therefore, the symptoms often are found variable in nature. As the condition often affect partial functionality of mental development process as well as brain development process, it is called incomplete lissencephaly.
The prognosis for children with pachygyria varies depending on the degree of brain abnormality and subsequent neurological signs and symptoms.
There are three common symptoms of pachygyria and these three common symptoms are delay in usual development, mental problems, and seizures. Apart from these three common issues some other associated problems are observed here like small head size, serous feeding issues, and inadequate muscle control of the baby. However almost all cases related to pachygyria is isolated in its own way and therefore the symptoms often vary from one child to another affected child.
A patient's cognitive ability ranges correlate to the thickness of any subcortical band present and the degree of pachygyria.
Different imaging modalities are commonly used for diagnosis. While computed tomography (CT) provides higher spatial resolution imaging of the brain, cerebral cortex malformations are more easily visualized in vivo and classified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which provides higher contrast imaging and better delineation of white and gray matter.
Diffuse pachygyria can be seen on an MRI as thickened cerebral cortices with few and large gyri and incomplete development of the fissure of Sylvius (sylvian fissure), severe epilepsy, reduced longevity, varying degrees of mental retardation, intractable epilepsy, spasticity.
Underlying cause, the degree of abnormality of brain, and successive neurological losses are the main factors needs to be verified for the right prognosis. The treatment of pachygyria is largely dependent of the prognosis. The treatment of pachygyria may include the administration of anti-seizure medication, and special education including occupational, physical, and different types of speech therapies; however these therapies and cognitive interventions may vary from one patient to another depending on his level of complications and age.
NOTE: The above information is for processing purpose. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care.
Related disease: Polymicrogyria
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