- Non-insulin-dependent - Class A1, which can be controlled by changes in diet.
- Insulin-dependent - Class A2.
- Class B - diabetes developed after age 20, have had the disease less than 10 years, no vascular complications.
- Class C - diabetes developed between age 10 and 19 or have had the disease for 10-19 years, no vascular complications.
- Class D - diabetes developed before age 10, have had the disease more than 20 years, vascular complications are present.
- Class F - diabetic women with kidney disease especially nephropathy.
- Class R - diabetic women with retinopathy (retinal damage).
- Class T - diabetic women who have undergone kidney transplant.
- Class H - diabetic women with coronary artery or other heart disease.
- Birth defects.
- Premature birth.
- Severe cases can causes other problems in the mother and poor growth and premature birth in the baby.
- Fetal movement counting. Counting the number of movements or kicks in a certain period of time, and watching for a change in activity.
- Ultrasound. A diagnostic imaging technique which uses high-frequency sound waves and a computer to create images of blood vessels, tissues, and organs. Ultrasounds are used to view internal organs as they function, and to assess blood flow through various vessels.
- Non-stress testing. A measurement of the fetal heart rate in response to the fetus' movements.
- Biophysical profile. A test that uses the non-stress test and ultrasound to examine fetal movements, heart rate, and amniotic fluid amounts.
- Doppler flow studies. A type of ultrasound which uses sound waves to measure blood flow.
- Preconception counseling.
- Optimal diabetic control before, during and after the pregnancy.
- Careful management by a Diabetes Management Team.
- Prompt diagnosis and treatment of both trivial and serious complications of pregnancy.
- Careful timing and suitable method of delivery.
- Presence of a Pediatrician with experience in the health management of infants of mothers with diabetes.
- Availability of a Neonatal intensive care nursery.
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