Description, Causes and Risk Factors:
An abscess posterior to the globe of the eye.
Although retrobulbar abscess is common, its etiology is poorly understood and is not always confirmed. It is assumed to be a bacterial infection, either of hematogenous origin or due to penetrating injury from the oral cavity in association with a foreign body. Mixed flora or no growth is a common finding on aerobic bacterial culture, and in many cases anaerobic culture testing methods are required in order to demonstrate the organisms. Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. have been isolated.
The process begins as orbital cellulites then localization occurs and an abscess may form. At the stage of cellulites, the clinical signs are less extreme; that is pain may be less, oral signs nonexistent, and diagnosis more difficult.
The prevalence of retrobulbar abscess is very rare.
The most important clinical signs of retrobulbar abscess/cellulites are as follows:
Pain on opening of the mouth.
Fluctuating red swelling in the oral mucous membrane behind last upper molar.
Protrusion of the third eyelid.
Chemosis, which is usually unilateral.
Retrobulbar abscess must be distinguished from orbital cellulites, which has similar but less marked clinical signs. In orbital cellulites pain is less evident, pyrexia and anorexia are not as pronounced and less exudate or no exudate is present on orbital drainage. Orbital cellulites may progress to retrobulbar abscess. Retrobulbar abscess may be distinguished from other causes of exophthalmos on the basis of its acute onset, pain, and often pyrexia. Leukocytosis with neutrophilia may be present.
Orbital cellulites and retrobulbar abscess are treated similarly, as follows: Drainage via an incision is made through only the oral mucosa. A pair of curved Circle hemostats are a blunt probe is inserted and opened in small steps until the orbit is reached. Orbital tissues should not be crushed or cut during this process so as to avoid damage to the optic nerve or orbital vasculature. This technique allows pockets of exudate to be drained while limiting damage to the orbit. Considerable amounts of exudate under pressure may be released, and dependent drainage to the oral cavity is established. Although exudate is frequently not obtained, drainage is an important prerequisite step in treatment. Failure to locate exudate indicates that the process is still at lacrimal sac and protrusion of orbital fat must be distinguished from cysts because their appearance may be similar.
NOTE: The above information is educational purpose. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care.
According to a recent study, published in The Journal of Physiology, exercising four to five times per week may help stop the main arteries to the heart from stiffening up. The researchers from the US have found that those who exercise four to five times per week had...
A new study from Brazil suggests that trendy intermittent fasting may be the reason for increasing insulin levels and the amount of abdominal fat. It also may lead to the damage of pancreatic cells. Intermittent fasting diet is a diet when a dieting person has “fast”...
Quiz about this article
0 of 2 questions completed
Please answer on few questions to make our service more useful
You have already completed the quiz before. Hence you can not start it again.
Quiz is loading...
You must sign in or sign up to start the quiz.
You have to finish following quiz, to start this quiz:
0 of 2 questions answered correctly
Time has elapsed
You have reached 0 of 0 points, (0)
Question 1 of 2
Was this article useful for you?Correct
Thanks for your feedback!Incorrect
Thanks for your feedback!
Question 2 of 2
What else information about this disease you want to know ?Correct
Thanks for feedback!Incorrect
Thanks for feedback!
Good weather is the best reason to do outdoor sports, which will help not only lose weight, but also will strengthen health. Bicycle The sun dries out the local paths, so you can safely sit on your favorite bike and confidently twist the pedals, where the eyes look....read more
First aid for injuries consists of simple rules that need to be clearly implemented. If this is a closed injury, you need to immobilize the injured limb, otherwise the person may lose consciousness from a painful shock. If you need to get to the emergency room...read more
Many people spontaneously decide starting to do sport, while others weigh all the pros and cons for a log time. But almost all of them make the same mistakes, listening to the advice of non experts. There are 10 anti-tips for those who want to do plan to do some sport...read more