Staphylococcal pneumonia


Staphylococcal pneumonia

Description, Causes and Risk Factors:

Pneumonia, usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus, usually commencing as a bronchopneumonia, and frequently leading to suppuration and destruction of lung tissue.

Staphylococcal pneumonia is a serious progressive infection which is associated with high incidence of complications and mortality unless recognized early and treated appropriately.

Until 1990s, Staphylococcal pneumonia was considered an uncommon form of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), accounting for 2-5% of all community-acquired pneumonia and occurring primarily in patients with influenza. In addition, S. aureus was recognized as an important but infrequent cause of nosocomial pneumonia, especially in pregnant woman and in the elderly.

Hospitalized neonates are commonly colonized soon after birth with Staphylococcus aureus. The majority of neonates do not develop infectious sequelae; however, premature neonates appear to be more susceptible to serious infections, such as pneumonia.

Approximately 20 percent of healthy persons are persistent carriers of Staphylococcus aureus, and 60 percent are intermittent carriers. Colonization rates are increased in hemodialysis patients, illicit injection drug users, surgical patients, and patients with insulin-dependent or poorly controlled diabetes.

Symptoms:

    Cough.

  • Fever.

  • Difficulty breathing.

  • Tachypnea and tachycardia.

  • Seizures.

  • Nausea and vomiting.

  • Diarrhea.

  • Nasal flaring.

  • Cyanosis.

  • Irritability.

  • Dehydration.

Diagnosis:

The diagnosis Staphylococcal pneumonia may at times be obvious, for example as an infection complicating influenza. Nevertheless, differentiation needs to be made from Pneumococcal pneumonia, and Gram stain and sputum culture should be able to differentiate between the two etiologies. On other occasions the exact diagnosis may be obscure. Identifying patients with CA-MRSA requires focusing on epidemiological risk factors combined with a characteristic clinical and radiological presentation. Isolates from blood, other sterile sties, and respiratory secretions should be type and tested for the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL).

Treatment:

In many cases strains of S. aureus were sensitive mainly to oxacillin and resistant mostly to penicillin. Management of Staphylococcal pneumonia requires a joint management plan with a surgeon. Empyema generally is managed best with the implantation of a chest tube constant drainage. Early recognition of purulent pleurisy is very important in children to ensure effective drainage before the effusion become fibrinous. One study cited that in patients whom the first tube was inserted after more than ten days had difficult drainage and often times require surgery due to the frequency of pleural effusion, pneumothorax.

NOTE: The above information is educational purpose. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.

DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care.

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