- Sometimes, part of the blood clot can break away and travel through the blood circulation system and lodge in the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism (PE). A PE is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition, as it can prevent blood from reaching your lungs.
- Warning signs of a PE are chest pain or shortness of breath.
- Prothrombin time (PT).
- Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT; using a thromboplastin that is relatively sensitive to the presence of a lupusanticoagulant).
- Thrombin time and reptilase time (to detect a heparin or direct thrombin inhibitor effect, and to screen for dysfibrinogenemia).
- Lupus anticoagulant panel (to include at least two phospholipid-dependent clot-based assays that interrogate at least two ofeither the intrinsic [sensitive aPTT], extrinsic [dilute prothrombin time] or common [Russell's viper venom clotting time, Ecarin/Textarin clotting times] procoagulant pathways, along with mixing studies to show inhibition and "confirm" studies [e.g., platelet neutralization procedure, hexagonal phase phospholipid] to show phospholipid-dependentinhibition).
- Anti-cardiolipin and anti-?2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies (IgG and IgM isotypes).
- Activated protein C (APC)-resistance ratio (second generation; "factor V-deficient plasma" mixing study).
- Fibrinogen, soluble fibrin monomer complex and quantitative plasma fibrin d-dimer (to screen for intravascular coagulation andfibrinolysis [DIC]).
- Prothrombin G20210A mutation genotyping (direct genomic DNA mutation testing).
- Plasma homocysteine (basal).
- For patients with idiopathic or recurrent venous thromboembolism; a first episode of venous thromboembolism at a "young" age;a family history of venous thromboembolism; venous thrombosis in an unusual vascular territory; neonatal purpura fulminansor warfarin-induced skin necrosis:
- Anti-thrombin activity (followed by anti-thrombin antigen level if the activity is low).
- Protein C activity (followed by protein C antigen level if the activity is low).
- Protein S activity (followed by free protein S antigen level if the activity is low. The total protein S antigen level may behelpful if the free protein S antigen is low).
- Flow cytometry for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria [PNH].
- Plasma ADAMTS-13 activity (for acquired or familial thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura).
- Plasminogen activity (for ligneous conjunctivitis/gingivitis).
- Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia testing (plasma anti-PF4/glycosaminoglycan antibodies [ELISA]; platelet C-serotonin release assay; heparin-dependent platelet aggregation).
- Quantitative PCR assay for JAK-2 mutation (for splanchnic or portal vein thrombosis).
- Chest x-rayposteroanterior and lateral view, urinalysis, mammogram, CT, MRI, and respective ENT evaluation for Smokers & Tobacco users.
- Colon imaging, especially if no prior screening (proctosigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy).
- UGI/upper endoscopy.
- Abdominal imaging (CT).
- Endometrial biopsy if endometrial cancer suspected.
A new study, published in the International Journal of Cancer, suggests that drinking hot tea is associated with a higher risk of developing esophageal cancer. The researchers analyzed data from over 50,000 people from the Golestan Cohort Study, a population-based...
According to a new international study, leisurely physical activity, which includes dancing, gardening, or walking, on a weekly basis may cut the risk of death from multiple causes in adults aged 40 and over. The team included researchers from the Shandong University...
In childhood, many of us dreamed of learning to jump high. Now, after years, it became easier - Kangoo Jumps has appeared. This is one of the relatively new, but quickly gaining popularity types of fitness training. There are several advantages of jumpers. ...read more
It is time for us to find the solution how to deal with extra weight which is coming with Christmas and New Year’s celebrations because 2018 is almost over and 2019 is getting closer. The main aim is obviously staying in shape and today will find an effective way to...read more
We know that moderate exercise strengthens our health and makes us more beautiful. But few know about the importance of doing sports as psychotherapy. And, nevertheless, physical loads can save from depressions, reduce anxiety, relieve from professional burnout,...read more