- Sometimes, part of the blood clot can break away and travel through the blood circulation system and lodge in the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism (PE). A PE is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition, as it can prevent blood from reaching your lungs.
- Warning signs of a PE are chest pain or shortness of breath.
- Prothrombin time (PT).
- Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT; using a thromboplastin that is relatively sensitive to the presence of a lupusanticoagulant).
- Thrombin time and reptilase time (to detect a heparin or direct thrombin inhibitor effect, and to screen for dysfibrinogenemia).
- Lupus anticoagulant panel (to include at least two phospholipid-dependent clot-based assays that interrogate at least two ofeither the intrinsic [sensitive aPTT], extrinsic [dilute prothrombin time] or common [Russell's viper venom clotting time, Ecarin/Textarin clotting times] procoagulant pathways, along with mixing studies to show inhibition and "confirm" studies [e.g., platelet neutralization procedure, hexagonal phase phospholipid] to show phospholipid-dependentinhibition).
- Anti-cardiolipin and anti-?2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies (IgG and IgM isotypes).
- Activated protein C (APC)-resistance ratio (second generation; "factor V-deficient plasma" mixing study).
- Fibrinogen, soluble fibrin monomer complex and quantitative plasma fibrin d-dimer (to screen for intravascular coagulation andfibrinolysis [DIC]).
- Prothrombin G20210A mutation genotyping (direct genomic DNA mutation testing).
- Plasma homocysteine (basal).
- For patients with idiopathic or recurrent venous thromboembolism; a first episode of venous thromboembolism at a "young" age;a family history of venous thromboembolism; venous thrombosis in an unusual vascular territory; neonatal purpura fulminansor warfarin-induced skin necrosis:
- Anti-thrombin activity (followed by anti-thrombin antigen level if the activity is low).
- Protein C activity (followed by protein C antigen level if the activity is low).
- Protein S activity (followed by free protein S antigen level if the activity is low. The total protein S antigen level may behelpful if the free protein S antigen is low).
- Flow cytometry for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria [PNH].
- Plasma ADAMTS-13 activity (for acquired or familial thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura).
- Plasminogen activity (for ligneous conjunctivitis/gingivitis).
- Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia testing (plasma anti-PF4/glycosaminoglycan antibodies [ELISA]; platelet C-serotonin release assay; heparin-dependent platelet aggregation).
- Quantitative PCR assay for JAK-2 mutation (for splanchnic or portal vein thrombosis).
- Chest x-rayposteroanterior and lateral view, urinalysis, mammogram, CT, MRI, and respective ENT evaluation for Smokers & Tobacco users.
- Colon imaging, especially if no prior screening (proctosigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy).
- UGI/upper endoscopy.
- Abdominal imaging (CT).
- Endometrial biopsy if endometrial cancer suspected.
According to a Spanish research, led by Dr. Victoria Moreno-Arribas from the Spanish National Research Council in Madrid, drinking red wine may protect teeth by destroying bacteria causing cavities and gum disease. The researchers completed an experiment where they...
Numerous studies conducted earlier showed that regular exercises have a positive effect on physical and mental health. The new work of American scientists confirms this. They believe that running five kilometers once a day is useful for the hippocampus (the brain...
Quiz about this article
0 of 2 questions completed
Please answer on few questions to make our service more useful
You have already completed the quiz before. Hence you can not start it again.
Quiz is loading...
You must sign in or sign up to start the quiz.
You have to finish following quiz, to start this quiz:
0 of 2 questions answered correctly
Time has elapsed
You have reached 0 of 0 points, (0)
Question 1 of 2
Was this article useful for you?Correct
Thanks for your feedback!Incorrect
Thanks for your feedback!
Question 2 of 2
What else information about this disease you want to know ?Correct
Thanks for feedback!Incorrect
Thanks for feedback!
Many people spontaneously decide starting to do sport, while others weigh all the pros and cons for a log time. But almost all of them make the same mistakes, listening to the advice of non experts. There are 10 anti-tips for those who want to do plan to do some sport...read more
Spring is not far off and very soon you will see many people riding a bike. It's worth to join them and now we will give you the 8 reasons why. Weight control Scientists of the University of Surrey (England) found that it's enough riding a bike for an hour, and, not...read more
We all want to get in shape and keep fit. But not everyone has time for visiting the gym. Give up the elevator. Give up lifts and climb the stairs. At work, at home, at the mall. This simple advice is a great benefit if you follow it daily. Climbing the stairs...read more