- Sometimes, part of the blood clot can break away and travel through the blood circulation system and lodge in the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism (PE). A PE is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition, as it can prevent blood from reaching your lungs.
- Warning signs of a PE are chest pain or shortness of breath.
- Prothrombin time (PT).
- Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT; using a thromboplastin that is relatively sensitive to the presence of a lupusanticoagulant).
- Thrombin time and reptilase time (to detect a heparin or direct thrombin inhibitor effect, and to screen for dysfibrinogenemia).
- Lupus anticoagulant panel (to include at least two phospholipid-dependent clot-based assays that interrogate at least two ofeither the intrinsic [sensitive aPTT], extrinsic [dilute prothrombin time] or common [Russell's viper venom clotting time, Ecarin/Textarin clotting times] procoagulant pathways, along with mixing studies to show inhibition and "confirm" studies [e.g., platelet neutralization procedure, hexagonal phase phospholipid] to show phospholipid-dependentinhibition).
- Anti-cardiolipin and anti-?2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies (IgG and IgM isotypes).
- Activated protein C (APC)-resistance ratio (second generation; "factor V-deficient plasma" mixing study).
- Fibrinogen, soluble fibrin monomer complex and quantitative plasma fibrin d-dimer (to screen for intravascular coagulation andfibrinolysis [DIC]).
- Prothrombin G20210A mutation genotyping (direct genomic DNA mutation testing).
- Plasma homocysteine (basal).
- For patients with idiopathic or recurrent venous thromboembolism; a first episode of venous thromboembolism at a "young" age;a family history of venous thromboembolism; venous thrombosis in an unusual vascular territory; neonatal purpura fulminansor warfarin-induced skin necrosis:
- Anti-thrombin activity (followed by anti-thrombin antigen level if the activity is low).
- Protein C activity (followed by protein C antigen level if the activity is low).
- Protein S activity (followed by free protein S antigen level if the activity is low. The total protein S antigen level may behelpful if the free protein S antigen is low).
- Flow cytometry for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria [PNH].
- Plasma ADAMTS-13 activity (for acquired or familial thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura).
- Plasminogen activity (for ligneous conjunctivitis/gingivitis).
- Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia testing (plasma anti-PF4/glycosaminoglycan antibodies [ELISA]; platelet C-serotonin release assay; heparin-dependent platelet aggregation).
- Quantitative PCR assay for JAK-2 mutation (for splanchnic or portal vein thrombosis).
- Chest x-rayposteroanterior and lateral view, urinalysis, mammogram, CT, MRI, and respective ENT evaluation for Smokers & Tobacco users.
- Colon imaging, especially if no prior screening (proctosigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy).
- UGI/upper endoscopy.
- Abdominal imaging (CT).
- Endometrial biopsy if endometrial cancer suspected.
Scientists from the Check Republic discovered the evidence that ticks may prefer attacking people with a certain blood type. Tick, the blood-sucking parasites, can carry various bacteria, including bugs that cause the Lyme disease. In the course of study, the...
A team of scientists from the Swinburne University of Technology in Australia finds that cinnamon may help in treating resistant bacterial infections breaking up their biofilms — sticky layers that are usually responsible for persistent infections that cannot be...
We all know that doing sports is very important, both for health and for a beautiful body. But at the moment when we decide to finally take the path, we are faced with the question: what kind of sport is right for me? So, let's start with the fact that a lot of people...read more
Pranayama is not just a complex of breathing exercises. It is a complex process, during which a person receives vital energy - prana from the air. Literally pranayama is translated as "stopping breathing". Hence the main goal of the whole breathing gymnastics is to be...read more
Experts often advise people as suitable trainings to climb stairs, rather than use the elevator. And here are 6 reasons why we should do this regularly. Classes on the treadmill or with the ellipsoid simulator in daily mode seem too boring. They can be replaced by a...read more