Thrombosis is an obstruction of the vessel (artery or a vein) by a blood clot formed within its lumen. Symptoms of thrombosis vary depending on the type and localization of the obstructed vessel.
- Deep Vein Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot within a deep vein, usually, the leg (femoral vein) is affected. The condition is characterized by the pain in the injured extremity, which appear bluish, swollen with erythema and warmth over the vicinity of the clot. Along the vein a cord may be palpated. During the examination a doctor will detect positive Homan’s sign (pain with dorsiflexion of the foot) and pain on palpation. Superficial veins become prominent.
The detachment of the clot (embolization) may cause a life-threatening pulmonary embolism.
In phlegmasia cerulea dolens an acute and almost total venous occlusion of the entire extremity outflow occurs. The leg is painful, tinged blue in color, and swollen, which may result in venous gangrene.
- Paget-Schroetter disease develops when the axillary or subclavian vein. It was called an effort-induced thrombosis in the past, because it’s more common for young males, and the possible cause of the condition is the vigorous activity.
- Budd-Chiary syndrome is a rare condition caused by the obstruction of the hepatic veins and characterized by hepatomegaly, ascites and abdominal pain accompanied by jaundice, splenomegaly, and collateral vein prominence.
- Portal vein thrombosis (portal vein obstruction) is thrombosis of the hepatic portal vein leading to portal hypertension and decreased blood flow to the liver. The symptoms of the acute condition include sudden pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, nausea, and fever. In chronic thrombosis mild hepatomegaly is often present and the right upper quadrant epigastric tenderness.
- Renal vein thrombosis usually occurs due to hypercoagulation and invasion by renal cell cancer. The condition may be asymptomatic or present flank pain and macroscopic hematuria, which can be severe in the acute onset of thrombosis.
- Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare form of the stroke due to the obstruction of the dural venous sinuses by the blood clot. Symptoms may vary in connection with the injured brain area and usually include headache, abnormal vision, any of the symptoms of stroke such as weakness of the face and limbs on one side of the body and seizures. Cranial nerve syndromes may be seen, they include vestibular neuropathy, pulsatile tinnitus, unilateral deafness, double vision, facial weakness and obscuration of vision.
- Internal jugular vein thrombosis is characterized by the pain and swelling at the angle of the jaw and a palpable cord beneath the sternocleidomastoid muscle, but in some cases, these symptoms may be absent. Other clinical manifestations include fever, neck swelling, and cervical pain, cord signs, etc.
Arterial thrombosis occurs when a thrombus obstructs the lumen of the artery causing ischemia and therefore necrosis of the tissues and loss of function.
- Ischemic stroke occurs when a blood vessel that provides the blood supply to the brain is occluded (due to a blood clot or embolus). The underlying condition is atherosclerosis. A person experiences confusion, troubles with speaking and understanding, headache, vomiting, numbness of the face, arm or leg, particularly on one side of the body, vision impairment, in one or both eyes, difficulties walking, including dizziness and lack of coordination as well as extremities weakness (paresis) or inability to move a body part or one side of the body (paralysis).
- Myocardial infarction (heart attack)develops as the result of the obstruction of the coronary artery or its branches. The injured tissue necrotizes. The condition may be fatal unless the treatment is begun immediately. The main symptom of the heart attack is chest pain usually described as a substernal pressure sensation, also it may also be perceived as squeezing, aching, burning, or even sharp. This pain may irradiate to the other body parts, commonly the left upper limb or the jaw. Sometimes the pain appears in the epigastric ares. A person is anxious, lightheaded, with or without syncope, he/she may be coughing or vomiting. Profuse sweating, shortness of breath, rapid or irregular heart rate are also characteristic.
- Mesenteric ischemia is caused by the decreased or ceased blood supply to the intestines caused by the disturbance of blood circulation. Acute mesenteric ischemia occurs when the blood supply to the intestines is suddenly interrupted. Chronic ischemia develops when the blood flow in the intestines is constantly disturbed. The leading symptom of the disease is abdominal pain.
- Limb ischemia is an acute or chronic condition of the decreased blood flow to the limb. Symptoms of acute limb ischaemia include “the six P’s” pain, pallor, paresthesias, perishingly cold, pulselessness and paralysis of the affected extremity.