Toxic shock syndrome
Toxic shock syndrome
Description, Causes and Risk Factors:
TSS is a toxin-mediated multisystem disease precipitated by infection with either Staphylococcus aureus or group A Streptococcus (GAS), also called Streptococcus pyogenes.
Rarely develops from symptomatic pharyngitis.
Those who use vaginal tampons, contraceptive diaphragms or vaginal contraceptive sponges.
Women who have recently given birth or had an abortion.
Men and women who have an infection with S. aureus are also known to be at risk for developing toxic shock syndrome.
Extremes of age.
The bacterium that causes TSS, Staphylococcus aureus, can be spread easily from person to person. TSS is not spread from person to person. Thorough handwashing is an important activity to prevent the spread of Staphylococcus aureus and other germs.
Most menstrual TSS can be prevented by avoiding the use of highly absorbent vaginal tampons. The risk may be reduced by using tampons intermittently during each menstrual cycle and by using less absorbent tampons. Users of diaphragms and contraceptive sponges should follow instructions which advise these not be left in place for more than 30 hours.
You can reduce your chances of getting TSS by changing your tampon frequently, at least every four to eight hours. Consider using the lowest absorbency tampon you can, and try to alternate using tampons and sanitary napkins whenever possible. Avoid using tampons at all when your flow is very light; use minipads instead.
Redness of eyes, mouth, and throat.
Nonfocal neurologic abnormalities.
Mucous membrane hyperemia.
Vomiting and diarrhea.
Differential Diagnosis: Leptospirosis, Rubeola, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, meningococcemia, Streptococcal or staphylococcal scarlet fever, and typhoid fever.
No single test can diagnose TSS. The diagnosis is based on several criteria: Fever, low blood pressure, a rash that peels after one to two weeks, and problems with the function of at least three organs. In some cases, blood cultures may be positive for growth of S. aureus. You may need to provide blood and urine samples to test for the presence of a staph or strep infection. Samples from your vagina, cervix and throat may be taken for laboratory analysis by using cotton swabs.
Chest Radiographs: Patients who develop multiorgan dysfunction will have bilateral airspaceinfiltrates consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome.
TSS has a rapid, dramatic, and fulminant onset. Quick recognition of the syndrome is important for enabling appropriate and prompt treatment. Immediate and aggressive management of hypovolemic shock caused by capillary leakage, vasodilatation, and fluid loss is essential in staphylococcal TSS. To ensure adequate perfusion of vital organs, fluid replacement with large volumes of crystalloid solutions (isotonic sodium chloride, lactated Ringer's) or colloidal solutions is important and is considered the mainstay of treatment. Patients may require 8 to 20 L of fluid during the first 24 hours to maintain blood pressure. Placement of a central venous pressure line or a pulmonary arterial catheter is recommended for hemodynamic monitoring.
Note:The above information is educational purpose. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
DISCLAIMER: This information should not substitute for seeking responsible, professional medical care.
According to the latest study, published in the European Journal of Public Health, regular use of probiotics may cut the necessity for antibiotics and help decrease the rise of antibiotic resistance. Having performed the analysis of the data, collected from recent...
A team of scientists from the University of Pennsylvania claims that they managed to patch up permanent teeth in children with the help of stem cells taken from baby teeth. The team performed the clinical trial that involved 30 children treated with the new method and...
It is very entertaining to be a sport fan. There is a big variety of sport games that are extremely interesting to follow. Moreover, it is always fun to anticipate the score and watch the enthusiasm live. One of the benefits of being sports fan is using different...read more
A new study of nearly 18,000 participants found that those with high fitness at middle age were significantly less likely to die from heart disease in later life, even if they were diagnosed with depression. Doctor's Tips: How to Stay Fit While Treating Depression Dr....read more
The warm ups are supposed to increase body temperature and blood flow so the muscles and surrounding joints become more responsive and prepared for physical activity. Although there’s a neurological element to warm-ups, most research focuses on the physiological...read more