- Sagging of the pelvic organs such as a prolapsed uterus or bladder.
- Weakening of the pelvic muscles, bladder and/or urinary sphincter muscles from pregnancy, childbirth and menopause.
- Tissue injury from hysterectomy, prostate surgery or radiation treatment for prostate cancer.
- An enlarged or inflamed prostate gland in men can make it difficult to urinate.
- Nerve damage from diabetes, stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injury.
- Certain medications such as sleeping pills, diet pills, diuretics (water pill), muscle relaxants, antidepressants, heart/blood pressure medications, allergy/cold medicines.
- Excessive intake of alcohol and/or caffeine (tea, coffee, chocolate, cola).
- High impact or vigorous exercise.
- Chronic constipation.
- Urinary tract infection.
- Uterine fibroids.
- Cancers in the pelvis such as prostate, cervix, rectum, urethra, and bladder.
- Tumors of the brain, spinal cord or those affecting the nerves to the bladder or pelvic muscles.
- Lung or esophageal cancer.
- Breast cancer.
- People with stress incontinence experience leaking urine with laughing, coughing, sneezing, lifting, exercising or standing up.
- People with urge incontinence may have overactive bladder and responds by signaling the need to urinate even though little urine is in the bladder.
- Bladder retraining: This involves urinating on a schedule, whether you feel a need to go or not. In between those times, you try to wait to the next scheduled time. At first, you may need to schedule 1-hour intervals. Gradually, you can increase by 1/2-hour intervals until you are only urinating every 3 - 4 hours without leakage.
- Kegel exercises: Contract the pelvic floor muscles for 10 seconds, then relax them for 10 seconds. Repeat 10 times. Do these exercises three times per day. You can do Kegel exercises any time, any place.
- Biofeedback: Used in conjunction with Kegel exercises, biofeedback helps people gain awareness and control of their pelvic muscles.
- Pelvic floor electrical stimulation: Mild electrical pulses stimulate muscle contractions; should be performed in conjunction with Kegel exercises.
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