Stable angina is a condition characterized by the pain/discomfort in the chest due to the decreased blood supply to the heart muscle that occur with exertion.
Ischemic heart disease (coronary artery disease) is a common, widespread disorder usually caused by atherosclerosis. Stable angina is a chronic form of ischemic heart disease which occurs due to obstruction of the coronary arteries by atheromatous plaque and transient myocardial ischemia when the heart muscle doesn’t receive enough blood and the tissues suffer from the decreased oxygen supply. Typically stable angina occurs in men over 50 years and women older than 60. The disease interferes with everyday activities of the person and may gradually lead to unstable angina and myocardial infarction – potentially life-threatening conditions.
Stable angina develops when the coronary arteries are narrowed up to 50-70% due to atheromatous plaques. Episodes of stable angina are caused by exertion (exercises, sexual activity or hurrying), emotions (such as stress, anger or fright), exposure to cold temperatures, consumption of carbohydrate-rich meals, all of these situations provoke the vasoconstriction, spasm of the arteries, which reduces the blood flow to the heart muscle even more and the myocardium suffers from hypoxia and, therefore, the pain occurs. Episodes of pain may also occur at rest when the arteries are too narrow to provide the heart muscle with the required amount of oxygen. Sometimes angina may develop even when the arteries are not blocked – in case of cardiomyopathy, heart valve disease, uncontrolled arterial hypertension, etc.
Risk factors for stable angina include both modifiable (which may be controlled) and non-modifiable factors:
Age: increased age is associated with greater risk of ischemic heart disease;
Sex: males are predisposed to ischemic heart disease, although in females the risk increases after menopause;
Family history of coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction;
Overweight and obesity;
High blood cholesterol and triglycerides;
High blood pressure;
Diabetes mellitus type 2 and glucose intolerance;
Sedentary lifestyle, lack of physical activity;
Overeating and unhealthy diet;
Angina pectoris classes
According to the limitation of everyday activity caused by chronic angina the disease is classified into 4 functional classes:
Class I – the pain doesn’t occur with ordinary activity or exertion;
Class II – pain occurs with moderate exertion;
Class III – mild exertion causes an episode of angina;
Class IV – angina pain develops at rest of is provoked by minimal activity;
Stable angina presents as episodes of chest discomfort which is usually described as a sensation of tightness, pressure, heaviness, aching, burning, squeezing or chocking and is provoked by exertion, stress, cold temperatures or may occur at rest. A person holds the clenched fist or hands over the chest while describing the pain. The ischemic cardiac pain irradiates to the left arm and shoulder, the lower jaw, less commonly – to the neck, right arm, back, and upper abdomen. The discomfort/pain typically lasts 2 to 5 minutes and relieves by slowing or ceasing activities and the administration of nitroglycerin. The typical episode of angina pectoris develops gradually and reaches its maximum intensity over a period of minutes, rest and nitroglycerin use effectively relieve the pain.
Other symptoms of the disease include the following:
Epigastric pain, belching;
Confusion, lightheadedness, and syncope;
Shortness of breath (dyspnea);
To evaluate the disease a resting electrocardiogram (ECG) should be obtained. Holter (24 hours monitoring) ECG is performed to monitor myocardial ischemia during daily activities. Exercise treadmill ECG is used to assess the symptoms of the disease in correlation with the ECG changes. Coronary angiography is the mainstay of invasive testing used to visualize the blocked arteries and estimate the lesion severity.
It is recommended to lose weight and adhere to a healthy diet with low content of saturated and trans fats and higher contents of poly- and monounsaturated fats. Physical activity is also necessary for the heart muscle.
Medications are used to both prevent and abrupt the episode of angina chest pain by the means of vasodilatation, which improves blood supply to the muscle and decreased oxygen demand.
Angioplasty is a procedure during which a tiny stent is inserted into the obstructed artery. This helps to widen the artery and renew the blood supply to the heart muscle. The coronary artery bypass graft is required when one or several of the main arteries are severely obstructed. The procedure is performed during open-heart surgery.
Aspirin (at a dose of 75-325 mg once a day) significantly reduces the risk of myocardial infarction and prevents the progression of angina;
Nitrates (nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate, isosorbide mononitrate) effectively relieve the pain and abort the episode of angina providing smooth-muscle relaxation, peripheral and coronary artery dilatation mediated by nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate. Oxygen supply is improved whilst oxygen demand decreases;
Beta-blockers (metoprolol, bisoprolol, propranolol) have antiischemic properties due to their ability to reduce oxygen demand by reducing the heart muscle contractions;
Calcium-channel blockers (verapamil, nifedipine, amlodipine) cause vasodilatation and improve the blood supply to the myocardium and at the meantime decrease the oxygen consumption;
Statins (rosuvastatin, atorvastatin) help to control the total cholesterol and low-density cholesterol, which are involved in atherogenesis (formation of the atheromatous plaques). Long-term intake of statins reduces the risk of future cardiovascular events and prevents myocardial infarction.
Many people are motivated for active sports in spring. However, before you buy a membership, you should check which exercises are useful to you and which ones should not be done in any way. Unfortunately, nowadays there are practically no people with an absolutely healthy musculoskeletal system – neither in 20 nor in 40 years. And only a specialist can determine the condition of your body and assess the risks.
For example, it is worth being careful if you have such defects as:
scoliosis, hyperkyphosis (excessive bending of the spine in the thoracic region);
X-shaped or O-shaped curvature of the legs;
scars after operations.
All this may complicate your sporting life, and not only not improve your health, but also add problems. Surely people are aware of their serious diagnoses. But sometimes the disease or deformity is still outlined, or you did not attach any importance to it.
The first stepto take is to pass a functional test – it will let you know the strengths and weaknesses of your body. Functional testing is done in a sports clinic, it is carried out by a rehabilitation doctor. Now there are many clinics that specialize in working with the musculoskeletal system, and it is best to get tested there. But recently, some fitness clubs offer such a service. You just need to know that testing should be carried out by a professional rehabilitologist.
And the second stepthat needs to be done is to go to rehab fitness to correct the condition.
Rehab fitness is basically a physical rehabilitation to improve and restore the lost functions of the musculoskeletal system using exercise therapy techniques, elements of strength and functional training, as well as manual techniques, Pilates, IFR, kinesiosis (application of special patches to potentially vulnerable parts of the body), etc.
This can be done by the same rehabilitation specialist, or by coaches with qualifications in the field of rehabilitation.
In childhood, many of us dreamed of learning to jump high. Now, after years, it became easier – Kangoo Jumps has appeared. This is one of the relatively new, but quickly gaining popularity types of fitness training.
There are several advantages of jumpers.
Kangoo Jumps Training is intense cardiovascular exercise. In Kangoo Jumps there are several different directions: aerobic, power and with elements of martial arts.
In one session on jumpers you can get rid of up to 1000 Kcal per hour of training. In addition, Kangoo Jumps reduces the load on the joints by up to 80% compared with sports shoes.
Jumpers can be used both for sports and for active recreation for people from 5 to 80 years old. You can not only jump, but also run in the fresh air.
Some doctors advise using jumpers to those who are in the rehabilitation period, for example, after surgery.
Tips and exercises for beginners
The principle of mounting on jumpers is the same as on rollers. The main thing is to not overtighten much.
Some get used to them from the first time, within 2-3 minutes. But in general, they can be mastered for 2-3 training.
The basis of the exercises are jumps, which are quite a few, more than 20. Various jumps can form a variety of complex ligaments among themselves.
Beginners can advise the most simple exercises. Each exercise is desirable to perform for a start for 30 seconds:
jumping on two legs
jumping from foot to foot
jack – feet together, feet apart
pendulum – we change legs from right to left, but at the same time the free foot is retracted to the side
seethes – jump from one foot to the other, while the free leg will touch the back of the thigh.
Beginners should not be afraid of jumpers, but on the contrary, go to the gym with a good mood. Then everything will work out.
It is time for us to find the solution how to deal with extra weight which is coming with Christmas and New Year’s celebrations because 2018 is almost over and 2019 is getting closer.
The main aim is obviously staying in shape and today will find an effective way to follow this goal. One of the ideas is to train like an athlete. You may think it sounds too unreal because you have to follow strict diet and training regime but you still have what bring from routine of a sportsman.
While it is not popular in the US but it is in all Europe and over 4 billion people are following it. Soccer players run about 7 miles per game which is the highest score within any sport. The most common exercise soccer players do are lunges, hurdlers and pillars. These workouts can be done by anyone and will strengthen your legs, core, and endurance.
Fortunately, you can do physical activity even sitting down. Cycling is a deservedly best workout you can think about. It improves your legs and lungs without big stress for your body. These interval-based workouts from Cycling.com will help you strengthen your endurance and shed pounds quick. Another bonus is that they won’t leave you in a huge amount of pain afterwards, if they’re done properly.
Swimming as well as rowing is one of the best workouts that trains a core strength, endurance and agility. Swimming is another low-impact activity, and helps improve blood and oxygen flow throughout the body. Fitness Magazine has these pool workouts you can use, and has one for each level of swimmer. So, if you’re inexperienced, you can work your way up the more advanced workouts.
Competitive boxers follow very strict schedules and routines in terms of their training and diets, but you can train like a boxer with the luxury of not having to make a specific weight.
Bodybuilding.com asked forum users to create their best boxing inspired workouts, and in here are some quality regimens.
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