A revolutionary study, conducted by a team of researchers at the Wyss Center for Bio and Neuroengineering in Switzerland, found that patients with complete locked-in syndrome can express their thoughts through the goal-oriented thinking.
Complete locked-in syndrome is a condition when a person experiences paralysis of all voluntary muscles in the body, and that means that such people cannot move, speak, or even move their eyes for communication.
Four persons with the syndrome due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) participated in the study. They were fitted with non-invasive brain-computer interface which is a cap packed with sensors.
This device uses near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electroencephalography (EEG) to measure blood oxygenation and electrical activity in the brain that are distinctly different when the patient thinks “yes” or “no.” After calibration, the scientists managed to receive patients’ answers to various questions.